staminode


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Related to staminode: epipetalous

staminode

[′stā·mə‚nōd]
(botany)
A stamen with no functional anther.
References in periodicals archive ?
Corolla gamopetalous, tubular-campanulate, infundibuliform, campanulate or hypocrateriform, sometimes with bilabiate apex, aestivation imbricate, zygomorphic; stamens included or exserted, 4, rarely reduced to 2, didynamous, staminode reduced, glabro, rarely elongate and pilose; filaments adnate to the corolla at the base; anthers commonly divergent, generally glabrous, rarely pilose; pollen grains many, in monads, rarely in tetrads or polyads; nectariferous disk generally present; gynoecium bicarpellate, bilocular; ovary superior, multiovulate, placentation axial, stigma bilamelate, lobes sensitive (closing after contact with pollinator).
In Musaceae (Andersson, 1998b), Strelitziaceae (Andersson, 1998c), Heliconiaceae (Andersson, 1998a), and Lowiaceae (Larsen, 1998b) the median posterior stamen is reduced to a staminode or is missing, and the flowers are more or less conspicuously bilabiate.
The style is placed under tension by differential growth of the style and hooded staminode, and the tension released by the pollinator moving the trigger appendage of the hooded staminode.
Patterns of staminode formation are intricately linked to patterns of evolution of whole floral structures.
Possibly the Penstemon (Cheloneae) "beardtongue" (staminode in the fifth, median position) has such a function, its hairs helping to exclude small insects while serving as a foothold for larger ones (Straw, 1956b).
0.1 mm; flower 1.5-3 cm diam; sepals heteromorphic, two smaller ovate, 4-5 x 1.7-2.3 mm, glabrous, margin ciliated, three larger obovate and suborbiculares, 8-10 x 4-8 mm, tomentulose, margin glabrous; petals heteromorphic, yellow, petal vexilar obcordate, 9-17 x 5.5-12 mm, two laterals obovate, 10-17 x 6-13 mm, two abaxial obovate, 10-20 x 8-14 mm; stamens 7, heteromorphic, three largest, a central, 9-10 mm long, two laterals, 10-15 mm long, four smaller, median, 6-7 mm long, fillets 1.4-7 mm long, anthers 4-8 mm long; three staminodes, 3.5 4.5 mm long; ovary tomentulose, 10-17 x 0.1-0.5 mm, 21-25 ovulated, style 2-3.5 mm long.
In tissue culture-derived populations of date palm it has been frequently observed that despite standard practice of pollination, besides female carpels, staminodes also grow to form a cluster of 3-9 tiny seedless fruit-like structures (Fig.
'Frances Rivis' has attractive dark buds, producing large, nodding bell-shaped flowers in deep blue flushed violet with blue staminodes.
Cacao flowers need pollen vectors because the stigmas are surrounded by a fence of staminodes and the anthers are hidden inside cave-shaped petal hoods; thus, anthers and stigmas are widely separated within the flower (e.g., Kaufmann, 1975).
Female flowers often possess characters such as indehiscent anthers (Bawa 1977), staminodes (Agren et al.
argentea in the rather laxer, more graceful panicle, with longer, more flexuous, nodding branches, somewhat smaller spikelets, more delicate glumes, and in the longer, very slender staminodes of the fem.
Staminate inflorescences capitate, 10-12 flowered in a single raceme, peduncle to 10 mm long, pedicels up to 1 mm long; perianth campanulate, 6 mm long, 6-lobed, each lobe 1 mm long; stamens 6 alternate with perianth lobes, anthers bilocular, dorsifixed, elliptic < 1 mm diameter, extrorse, generally 1 or 2 reduced to staminodes; the fine filaments connate basally, borne at the base of a pistillode 3 mm long; lower part of the perianth reduced to 2 or 3 small involucral bracts; indumentum densely short velutinous.