staminode


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Related to staminode: epipetalous

staminode

[′stā·mə‚nōd]
(botany)
A stamen with no functional anther.
References in periodicals archive ?
In Rutaceae, a group of genera (Cusparieae, Galipeae) has a monosymmetric androecium by reduction of stamens to staminodes on one side (Eichler, 1878; Engler, 1931; Kallunki & Pirani, 1998; Mabberley, 2000; Pirani & Kallunki, 2007; Groppo et al.
Corolla gamopetalous, tubular-campanulate, infundibuliform, campanulate or hypocrateriform, sometimes with bilabiate apex, aestivation imbricate, zygomorphic; stamens included or exserted, 4, rarely reduced to 2, didynamous, staminode reduced, glabro, rarely elongate and pilose; filaments adnate to the corolla at the base; anthers commonly divergent, generally glabrous, rarely pilose; pollen grains many, in monads, rarely in tetrads or polyads; nectariferous disk generally present; gynoecium bicarpellate, bilocular; ovary superior, multiovulate, placentation axial, stigma bilamelate, lobes sensitive (closing after contact with pollinator).
Precise pollen placement, protection of the pollen by the cucullate staminode and possible adaptation to pollination by distinctive morphological changes are innovations that may explain the richness of Marantaceae compared to its sister group, the Cannaceae (Kennedy, 2000).
We could term this transformation from stamen to staminode, and to petal, "serial homeosis," but not in th e sense of Takahashi (1994).
For example, a "beardtongue" staminode like the one in Penstemon (Cheloneae, Scrophulariaceae) also occurs in Jacaranda (Bignoniaceae); petal aestivation, or folding in the buds, shows both ascending and descending patterns within Scrophulariaceae, Lentibulariaceae, and Bignoniaceae, ascending and quincuncial patterns within Acanthaceae, and descending and quincuncial patterns in Orobanchaceae [whereas their presumed closest relatives, Rhinantheae (Scrophulariaceae) have ascending petal folding]; personate corollas similar to those of Antirrhineae (Scrophulariaceae) are exhibited by some Acanthaceae, Gesneriaceae, Bignoniaceae, and Lentibulariaceae; other parallelisms occur in ovary structure, ovule number, sensitive stigma lobes, and postgenital fusion of the anthers (Endress, 1994).
In tissue culture-derived populations of date palm it has been frequently observed that despite standard practice of pollination, besides female carpels, staminodes also grow to form a cluster of 3-9 tiny seedless fruit-like structures (Fig.
presence of staminodes, short and long stamens) that are found in some floral formulae cannot be recorded.
Fully hardy and into flower around mid April, the nodding, long, 3 in petals are snow white with yellow-tipped white staminodes (the brush like stamens in the centre).
The petals are actually white, with prominent yellow staminodes.
Cacao flowers need pollen vectors because the stigmas are surrounded by a fence of staminodes and the anthers are hidden inside cave-shaped petal hoods; thus, anthers and stigmas are widely separated within the flower (e.
Female flowers often possess characters such as indehiscent anthers (Bawa 1977), staminodes (Agren et al.