staminode

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staminode

[′stā·mə‚nōd]
(botany)
A stamen with no functional anther.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
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Inflorescences axillary, racemose, 2 flowered, 1.4-2.6 cm long; bracts lanceolate, 3-5 mm long, persistent, strigose, margin ciliated; pedicel 1.3-1.8 cm long; extrafloral nectaries absent; flower 0.7-1.3 cm diam; sepals heteromorphic, two smaller deltoid, 3.6-4 x 2-2.2 mm, strigose, margin ciliated, three larger ovate to obovate, 5.7-9 x 4-4.2 mm, strigose, margin ciliated; petals heteromorphic, yellow, petal vexilar obcordate, 8-8.2 x 3-5 mm, two laterals obovate and oblong, 5.7-9 x 3-5 mm, two abaxial obovate and oblong, 6-9 x 3-4 mm; stamens 7, heteromorphic, three largest, 4.4-6.1 mm long, four smaller, 4-5 mm long, fillets 11.2-2.1 mm long, anthers 1.8-3.6 mm long; three staminodes 11.5 mm long; ovary sericeous, 1.5-1.7 x c.
Flowers sessile, buds cylindrical; epicalyx green; corolla 6merous, 0.3-0.5 cm in length, reddish-cream, valvate; stamens-6, majors 0.5 X 0.1 cm, minors 0.3 X 0.1 cm, included; ovary obovate, 0.2 cm in length; style cylindrical, 0.3-0.4 cm in length, staminodes filiform with compressed thecae.
In Rutaceae, a group of genera (Cusparieae, Galipeae) has a monosymmetric androecium by reduction of stamens to staminodes on one side (Eichler, 1878; Engler, 1931; Kallunki & Pirani, 1998; Mabberley, 2000; Pirani & Kallunki, 2007; Groppo et al., 2008); Calodendrum and Dictamnus have sigmoidally curved pollination organs (Engler, 1931), and Cneoridium and Empleuridium are monosymmetric by reduction (Engler, 1931).
This monotypic section is characterized by the number of stamens being reduced to three, and the absence of staminodes. The basal part of the rachillae is covered with yellowish bristles.
(d) Cross-pollination (CP): buds of both morphs about to open the next day were emasculated (pistillate flowers have staminodes) and enclosed in a pollination bag; next day pollen from each morph (anthers and staminodes) was used to pollinate flowers of the opposite sex; unopened flowers were discarded and pollinated flowers were enclosed in a pollination bag.
Pistillate flowers subtended by a membranous bract, calyx shorter than or equaling corolla, cup-shaped or globose-inflated, truncate, tridenticulate, corolla tomentose-spiny, limb straight, staminodes either free, tooth-like or connate in a ring, pistil tomentose or tomentose-setose, tricarpelate, uniovulate, stigmas small, trifid, lobes tiny, straight to spreading or recurved.
A typical palm flower is small (1-2 cm), with 3 imbricate sepals, 3 valvate petals, six stamens or staminodes, and 3 uniovulate carpels or a trifid pistillode.
Fruit perianth with a persistent calyx about 1 mm long, reaching 1/2 the total height of the corolla tube; petals 4-5 mm long, connate for up to 2 mm (1/3-1/2 their length); staminodes 12-13, 1-2 opposite each sepal, and 2-3 opposite each petal.
In many genera of Mutisieae the anthers are reduced to staminodes in the functionally female florets.
Florets dimorphic; marginal florets female, with staminodes, corolla bilabiate, outer lip expanded; central florets bisexual, corolla bilabiate; anther apical appendages acute, tails papillose; style bilobed, branches dorsally papillose.
Florets dimorphic with a gradual transition from marginal to central florets, marginal florets female, corolla true ray, filiform to bilabiate with a minute inner lip, outer lip expanded or not, with or without staminodes; central florets bisexual, bilabiate to tubular-bilabiate; anther apical appendages acute, tails smooth; style bilobed, branches dorsally papillose.
Florets in male capitula with corollas tubular sub-campanulate, deeply five-lobed, lobes coiled; anther apical appendages apiculate, tails smooth; style bifid, widened below the branch bifurcation point, branches appressed, collector hairs above and somewhat below the bifurcation point, the hairs long and acute; florets in female capitula with corollas tubular-filiform, shallowly five-lobed, lobes erect; anthers absent or reduced to staminodes; style not widened, branches smooth.