It is important to note that in the RF filtering portions of the designs, high frequency capacitors are best suited for designs with specific filtering requirements because of their lower ESR characteristics in comparison to using standard capacitor
The value of a standard capacitor
may vary slightly with frequency because the imperfect medium between its electrodes has varying degrees of dielectric relaxation over the frequency range and the leads and electrodes of the capacitor have residual inductance.
Figure 1 illustrates the structural differences between a standard capacitor
and an X2Y component; every "hot" electrode (labeled A and B) is surrounded by a reference electrode.
At the heart of the new technique lies the ability to count individual electrons and pump them through a circuit to charge up a standard capacitor
with a known number of electrons.
The design incorporates common shielding electrodes that form a Faraday Cage around the standard capacitor
. The addition of the common electrode creates two matched or balanced capacitors enabling simultaneous line-to-line and line-to-ground filtering.
The company maintains that the NFM18PS capacitors are very appropriate for these types of applications where standard capacitors
are not suitable.
As with standard capacitors
, repeating the core structure increases the capacitance.
Figure 12 shows the final schematic with parasitics added, standard capacitors
and optimized inductor values.