Standard Solution

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standard solution

[¦stan·dərd sə¦lü·shən]
(analytical chemistry)

Standard Solution


a solution with a known concentration of chemical reagent. Standard solutions are used in titrimetric analysis for establishing the quantity of a particular substance (analyte) by titrating to an equivalence point, usually determined by a change in color of a chemical indicator or of the titrated solution. In order to calculate the results, the amount (volume, sometimes weight) of the standard solution consumed in the reaction with the analyte is established. The accuracy of the determinations depends on the accuracy in establishing the concentration of the standard solution. The concentration of a standard solution is usually expressed in terms of normality. The titer also has certain practical applications.

Standard solutions are obtained in a number of ways. One method involves dissolving an exact weight of a substance in an exact volume of solvent. The substance must be chemically pure and must be stable during storage in solid form and in solution; the composition of this substance must correspond exactly to its chemical formula. A second method involves titration with another solution having a known concentration. This method is convenient in that it does not require exact weighings to determine the concentration of many solutions. Standard solutions can also be prepared by using titrants in the form of dry substances or solutions in amounts required for the preparation of 1 liter of solution of a given concentration. These titrants are produced industrially and are marketed in sealed glass ampuls. Standard solutions must be stored under conditions that ensure a constant composition; here, the chemical nature of the solute must be taken into account.


Kolthoff, I. M., and V. A. Stenger. Ob’emnyi analiz, vol. 1. Moscow-Leningrad, 1950. (Translated from English.)
Kreshkov, A. P. Osnovy analiticheskoi khimii, 3rd ed. [vol. 2]. Moscow, 1970.
Alekseev, V. N. Kolichestvennyi analiz, 4th ed. Moscow, 1972.


References in periodicals archive ?
All 10 of the di- and tripeptides tested passed across the microdialysis membrane and could be quantified in the samples from the standard solution. Absolute recovery, expressed as the amount of di- and tripeptides sampled by induced diffusion across the microdialysis membranes per unit time (induced diffusive flux rates) measured relative to the standard solution, was strongly influenced by perfusate flow rate.
Analyte 1 [right arrow] 6: P standard solution diluted by soil mixture solution with the concentration of 0, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2mg/L; analyte 7, 8: GSS-5; analyte 9, 10: GSS-8; analyte 11,12: GSS-14; and analyte 13, 14: GBW (E) 070041.
It is important to know if the solutions used in the analytical of both the standard solutions and the sample solutions are stable over time.
To determine the selectivity/specificity have been prepared standard solutions of nimesulide, sample and placebo.
The area under the curve of each peak (chromatogram) is proportional to the concentration of each standard solution used and injected into the column.
The peak on retention time was 2.193, which matched with the retention time of Paraquat Dichloride compound, hence the standard solution was confirmed to contain certain level of Paraquat concentration.
From the obtained results, it can be observed that intermediate removals, above 50%, for the two quality parameters in subject were obtained from the Moringa oleifera Lam standard solution dosage of 400 ppm.
The SSP1493 chip is a signal conditioning and interface IC designed as a low-cost standard solution for use in high performance, large volume sensor applications where cost is a major driver, including sensor-enabled consumer electronics, smart toys and next generation cell phones.
The company's SSP1493 sensor signal conditioning and interface integrated circuit is a low-cost standard solution. It is for use in high-performance, large-volume sensor applications where cost is a major driver, including sensor-enabled consumer electronics, smart toys, and next-generation cell phones.
Three Eppendorf tubes of 1.5 mL were prepared with standard solution of 50, 100 or 200 ng x [ml.sup.-1] and fish plasma samples.
where V is the volume of NaOH standard solution used while titration (ml), [V.sub.0] is the volume of HCl standard solution added to the titration system (ml), [C.sub.B] is the concentration of NaOH standard solution (M), [V.sub.e] is the volume of NaOH standard solution used while titration equivalent point is achieved (ml).

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