The acoustic startle response
is normal in patients with multiple system atrophy.
Repeated measures ANOVA with the dB level of prepulse (70 dB, 80 dB, and 84 dB) as the within-subject factor and treatment group as the between-subject factor revealed, as expected, a significant within-subject effect of the PPI level with increasing amplitudes of prepulses leading to increased inhibition of the startle response
to the subsequent pulse (repeated measures ANOVA, within subjects: F(2, 168) =491.153, p < 0.0001).
Willott, "Effects of inferior colliculus lesions on the acoustic startle response
," Behavioral Neuroscience, vol.
is such as might be caused by a sudden sound from one's left.
Swenson, "Impaired prepulse inhibition of acoustic and tactile startle response
in patients with Huntington's disease," Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol.
The startle response
and accompanying fear could explain many LOC-I accidents.
To this extent, Sege, Bradley, and Lang (2013) have recently reported weaker emotional modulation of the startle response
for cued pictures (preceded by a color signaling the upcoming thematic content), as compared to non-cued scenes.
These findings are relevant to our understanding of functional stability in patients with OT because the central neurological pathways that mediate the acoustic startle response
are believed to involve centers within the brainstem that are responsible for postural control.
Joseph Franklin and colleagues used recording electrodes to measure participants' negative emotions (eyeblink startle response
) and positive emotions (muscle activity behind the ear) in response to loud noises; sometimes the loud noise was presented alone and other times it was presented 3.5, 6, or 14 seconds after receiving a low- or high-intensity shock.
People who develop ASD could suffer from depression, anxiety, hyper vigilance, exaggerated startle response
, invasive thoughts, among others.
Muscle tone was permanently increased, as indicated by tetanus-like erection of the ears and by a violent but brief startle response
to the slightest acoustic or tactile stimulation (Figure).