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This article is provided by FOLDOC - Free Online Dictionary of Computing (
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



in blasting operations:

(1) The process of filling the empty part of a charge case, such as a blasthole or well, with an inert stemming material (sand, gravel, or clay) to retain the products of the detonation of an explosive charge in an enclosed space. Blastholes and wells are stemmed mechanically by pneumatic rammers and stemming machines. Stemming is performed after the charging operation is completed.

(2) The material used in charge cases to insulate an explosive charge. Friable materials that are inert to the action of an explosion and are sufficiently hard and have a high coefficient of internal friction are usually used for stemming. In blast-holes, the best stemming materials are crushed stone chips (with water filling the spaces between the grains), coarse sand, water-filled plastic ampuls, and fast-hardening concretes. In shafts in which there is a gas or dust hazard, various types of pulp and paste stemming materials are also used. Stemming made of finely crushed chips (to 20 mm) and siftings from crushing and sorting plants is used in wells. Water stemming of well charges is less effective, since its ejection resistance decreases sharply with an increase in diameter. Stemming made with pieces of rock no larger than 300 mm is advisable for case charges. Stemming increases the resistance to the escape of gaseous detonation products from the charge case, as well as the duration of application of the explosion energy to the performance of efficient crushing work or the removal of rock to a particular distance.

The length of the stemming may be only 8–10 times the diameter of the blasthole or well when the most effective materials and the most efficient explosive charge arrangements are used. In shafts with gas and dust hazards, the length of the stemming is governed by the Safety Regulations.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


A suitable inert incombustible material or device used to confine or separate explosives in a drill hole, or to cover explosives in mudcapping.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Stemming Algorithms: A Comparative Study and their Analysis.
There are different stemming algorithms for English language.
The results show that corpus-based analysis of word variants can be used to enhance the performance of stemming algorithms. Experiments with crude equivalence classes generated by trigram matching demonstrate the validity of the basic hypothesis that related word variants cooccur in limited text windows.
As a result of the stemming algorithm, words ending with an y now end with an i, for example the labels 'kei' (containing most of sci.crypt) or 'batteri' (various postings e.g.
The first step in our stemming algorithm is to check whether a word contains attached pronouns.
Stemming algorithms: a case study for detailed evaluation.
We analyze the impact of stemming algorithms (Porter and Krovetz) and stopword lists (NLM and SMART) in the retrieval of documents from the corpus Cystic Fibrosis.
For text documents, stemming algorithms, grammar parsers, idiom detectors, thesauri, or other methods might be applied on the search terms as well as the documents searched to ensure results that are more relevant and comprehensive than could be accomplished by string or regular expression matching.
Stemming programs are commonly referred to as stemming algorithms or stemmers.