steroids


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steroids,

class of lipidslipids,
a broad class of organic products found in living systems. Most are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar solvents. The definition excludes the mineral oils and other petroleum products obtained from fossil material.
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 having a particular molecular ring structure called the cyclopentanoperhydro-phenanthrene ring system. Steroids differ from one another in the structure of various side chains and additional rings. Steroids are common in both plants and animals. In humans, steroids are secreted by the ovaries and testes, the adrenal cortex (see adrenal glandadrenal gland
or suprarenal gland
, endocrine gland (see endocrine system) about 2 in. (5.1 cm) long situated atop each kidney. The outer yellowish layer (cortex) of the adrenal gland secretes about 30 steroid hormones, the most important of which are aldosterone and
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), and the placenta.

The range of steroids is diverse, including several forms of vitamin D, digitalis, sterols (e.g., cholesterolcholesterol
, fatty lipid found in the body tissues and blood plasma of vertebrates; it is only sparingly soluble in water, but much more soluble in some organic solvents. A steroid, cholesterol can be found in large concentrations in the brain, spinal cord, and liver.
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), and the bile acids. Many steroids are biologically active hormoneshormone,
secretory substance carried from one gland or organ of the body via the bloodstream to more or less specific tissues, where it exerts some influence upon the metabolism of the target tissue.
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 that control a number of the body's metabolic processes. This group includes the male sex hormone testosteronetestosterone
, principal androgen, or male sex hormone. One of the group of compounds known as anabolic steroids, testosterone is secreted by the testes (see testis) but is also synthesized in small quantities in the ovaries, cortices of the adrenal glands, and placenta, usually
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 and the female sex hormones estrogenestrogen
, any one of a group of hormones synthesized by the reproductive organs and adrenal glands in females and, in lesser quantities, in males. The estrogens cause the thickening of the lining of the uterus and vagina in the early phase of the ovulatory, or menstrual, cycle
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 and progesteroneprogesterone
, female sex hormone that induces secretory changes in the lining of the uterus essential for successful implantation of a fertilized egg. A steroid, progesterone is secreted chiefly by the corpus luteum, a group of cells formed in the ovary after the follicle
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. The steroid hormones of the adrenal cortex include glucocorticoids such as cortisonecortisone
, steroid hormone whose main physiological effect is on carbohydrate metabolism. It is synthesized from cholesterol in the outer layer, or cortex, of the adrenal gland under the stimulation of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).
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 and cortisolcortisol
or hydrocortisone,
steroid hormone that in humans is the major circulating hormone of the cortex, or outer layer, of the adrenal gland. Like cortisone, cortisol is classed as a glucocorticoid; it stimulates liver glycogen formation while it decreases the rate
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 (see also corticosteroid drugcorticosteroid drug
, any one of several synthetic or naturally occurring substances with the general chemical structure of steroids. They are used therapeutically to mimic or augment the effects of the naturally occurring corticosteroids, which are produced in the cortex of the
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) and mineralocorticoids such as aldosteronealdosterone
, steroid secreted by the cortex of the adrenal gland. It is the most potent hormone regulating the body's electrolyte balance. Aldosterone acts directly on the kidney to decrease the rate of sodium-ion excretion (with accompanying retention of water), and to
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.

Natural or synthetic steroids are used in oral contraceptives and in the treatment of arthritisarthritis,
painful inflammation of a joint or joints of the body, usually producing heat and redness. There are many kinds of arthritis. In its various forms, arthritis disables more people than any other chronic disorder.
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, Addison's diseaseAddison's disease
[for Thomas Addison], progressive disease brought about by atrophy of the outer layer, or cortex, of the adrenal gland; it is also called chronic adrenocortical insufficiency.
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, and certain skin ailments. Side effects, related to dosage and length of treatment, can be serious and include high blood pressure, edema, unwanted hair growth, and menstrual cycle disruption. Anabolic steroidsanabolic steroid
or androgenic steroid
, any of a group of synthetic derivatives of testosterone that promote muscle and bone growth. Used to treat uncontrolled weight loss in wasting diseases, anabolic steroids have also been taken by bodybuilders and athletes seeking
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, male hormones given to build up strength in seriously ill patients, have been abused by bodybuilders and athletes in an attempt to increase muscle mass and strength.

References in periodicals archive ?
"However, if you look at the criticism about using a particulate steroid in a cervical epidural, I would probably err on the side of caution and use a non-particulate steroid."
During the raid, police seized from the second-floor apartment raw steroid powders, finished liquid injectable steroids, a significant amount of steroid-making equipment, paraphernalia, packaging materials and proceeds from Mr.
Kidney transplant programs continue to have varied practices with regard to immunosuppression protocols in general, and the use of steroids in particular.
In Kuwait, the Disciplinary Committee of anti-doping which was raised from the Kuwait Olympic Committee issued a decision to ban one of its athletes from the Kuwait Judo' team "AAS user" for two years after he tested positive for the use of steroids. He was using "Lasix stimulant" which contain furosemide, and it prohibited in sport, in the Gulf athletics for Judo which was held in Qatar in August 2008.
M2 PRESSWIRE-August 19, 2019-: Steroidcycle.Org Is Providing The Beginner's Guide To The Steroid Cycle Therapy
They need to apply them regularly because if they stop, the inflammation resurfaces due to the absence of the immunosuppressive and vaso-constrictive properties of topical steroids. This is what we call steroid addiction.
For the study, researchers conducted an anonymous survey of 550 men, who regularly attended the gym, to assess their knowledge of, use of and attitude towards the health risks of anabolic steroids.
It was after his death that the doctor got to know that he had been on steroids. He neither volunteered the information because of the poor nature of his health nor did his friends know about it.
The NHS warns users of anabolic steroids that they can cause serious side-effects and addiction.
The Margam gym instructor and fitness trainer said he doesn't believe there's a problem with people taking steroids but that they need to be aware of the impact they will have.
If you have an acute condition, such as poison ivy or bronchitis, and you take steroids for a week and then stop, you probably won't have any side effects.
The term "corticosteroid" comes from the fact that most steroids are produced by the cortex of the adrenal glands.

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