The VIB uses the Cauchy-Born rule of crystal elasticity to obtain macroscopic collective behaviour of the stochastic bond network inside solid material, and it only considers the stretch energy of virtual internal bond and has only one type of bond possessing only one kind of

stiffness coefficient (stretch stiffness), which lead to free rotation of bonds.

Deformation of the component depends on the

stiffness coefficient of the component and force in the component (Weynand et al.

According to the suggested model (22), having calculated the required general connection

stiffness coefficient [lambda], from the Eq (8) the characteristic of the shear stiffness of connection is calculated:

However, direct comparisons are difficult because of the notable difference between their studies and this work, which was the use of the

stiffness coefficient that involves density rather than the use of velocity alone.

The long axis of the prosthetic foot was oriented parallel to a near-frictionless plate (achieved using a ball bearing interface), and the "ball" of the prosthetic foot was loaded by a force perpendicular to the plate to simulate late stance and thereby estimate the

stiffness coefficient of a Voigt model from the measured static force-displacement relationship.

d[phi]/dt, t is time, m is mass, L is the length of the pendulum, [mu] is the gravitation constant, b is the linear damping coefficient, c is the linear

stiffness coefficient, [A.

Several factors might be responsible for observed discrepancies: the pressure sensor and the muscle are connected with 1m long line meaning that the sensor reading has to be corrected; the equation 6 for volume flow might better approximate discharge cycle than a filling cycle; the differential equation 11 makes assumption of isothermal process with ideal gas and it might be needed to refine it; the

stiffness coefficient of parallel spring was considered constant.

The numbers 2, 3, 4, 5 denote bearings with the reduced

stiffness coefficient [k.

8) which contains a spring component with equivalent

stiffness coefficient [k.

Maximum error between reference nodes of the reference and reduced FE models was 14% after the adjustment of the

stiffness coefficient values of link elements, Fig.

The alignment duration is also dependent on the

stiffness coefficient [k.

Secondly, FE results slightly underestimate

stiffness coefficient beyond the value of eccentricity ratio equal to 0.