where [k.sub.3]: is the stiffness factor associated with the cost of damage for displacement control components in story 3, [k.sub.2]: is the stiffness factor associated with the cost of damage for displacement control components in story 2, [k.sub.1]: is the stiffness factor associated with the cost of damage for displacement control components in story 1, [m.sub.3]: is the mass factor associated with the cost of damage for acceleration control components in story 3, [m.sub.2]: is the mass factor associated with the cost of damage for acceleration control components in story 2, [m.sub.1]: is the mass factor associated with the cost of damage for acceleration control components in story 1.

where in these equations, [M.sub.ei]: is effective mass for mode number i, calculated by the means of Equation (9), i: is the mode number, n: is total number of modes, [M.sub.t]: is total modal mass, [MPF.sub.i]: is mass participation factor for mode i, [k]: is the substituted matrix of stiffness, :is the mode vector of cost for ith mode, [K.sub.ei]: is the effective stiffness factor for mode number i.

If that is complemented with the significant reduction of the carrying wheel tyre stiffness factor to 25 kNx[m.sup.-1], i.e.

At a tyre stiffness factor of [C.sub.3] = 200 kNx[m.sup.-1] (Graph 1, Fig.

Particularly in two-dimensional mechanical problems using discrete crack models with interface elements, some authors define two triangular finite elements with high aspect ratio in the interface [29, 30], which depend on a tension damage constitutive relationship and the same kinematics as the continuum strong discontinuity approach tangent stiffness factor. Other authors state zero-thickness interface elements that couple pairs of duplicate nodes, whose behavior is defined by a traction-separation law [28].

Consequently, this model proposes a simplification of the cohesive law, in which the tangent stiffness factor [k.sup.coh.sub.l] is equal to zero, when the cohesion is totally lost, and tends to infinity when the displacement compatibility is preserved.

Equation (18) implies that, when performing sensitivity analysis, the sensitivity matrix of the responses with respect to each elemental

stiffness factor should be calculated on each time step.

[15] presented the definition of dimensionless bending

stiffness factor, the relationship of bending

stiffness factor and wrinkling factor is derived, and the bending

stiffness factor is simplified as different linear functions with wrinkling factor.

Low

stiffness factor; low resistance to shock loads.

Nonlinear Dynamic Finite Element Model Algorithm and the Optimization of Contact

Stiffness Factor Based on Experiment

This process of contour extraction, surface formation, matching, and stretching is repeated a number of times, with

stiffness factors decreased during each iteration to duplicate what actually occurs in the body.