stigma


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stigma:

see pistilpistil
, one of the four basic parts of a flower, the central structure around which are arranged the stamens, the petals, and the sepals. The pistil is usually called the female reproductive organ of a flowering plant, although the actual reproductive structures are microscopic.
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stigma

any physical or social attribute or sign (e.g. physical deformity or a criminal record) which so devalues an actor's social identity as to ‘disqualify from full social acceptance’ (GOFFMAN, 1964). Different implications follow for the stigmatized person according to whether the stigma is visible (the individual is obviously ‘discredited’), or hidden (the individual is potentially ‘discreditable’). The latter allows a greater number of options to the stigmatized person to manage his or her stigma. But in both cases the actor's problem lies in finding a means of limiting, or even turning to some advantage, the damaging effects of the stigma. As well as of interest in its own right, the study of stigmatized identities also throws light on the social construction of ‘normal’identities (see DEVIANCE).

Stigma

 

the plant organ that receives pollen during pollination. The stigma usually develops on the apex of the style; if there is no style, the stigma develops directly on the ovary. Stigmas vary in shape and are often covered with papillae or hairs that facilitate retention of the pollen.


Stigma

 

(1) A spiracle, or breathing opening, of the trachea and lungs on the body surface in many arthropods, including arachnids, onychophorans, myriapods, and insects. Arachnids usually have two pairs of stigmata, solpugids have three pairs, and most acarians have one pair. There are many stigmata scattered all over the body of onychophorans. In myriapods, the paired stigmata are usually situated on the abdominal side of all or only some truncal segments. There are one to ten pairs of stigmata on the thoracic and abdominal segments of insects. The stigmata of insects are furnished with a closing apparatus and can be opened and closed to regulate the exchange of gases.

(2) One of the numerous gill openings in the pharynx of ascidi-ans, a group of chordate animals.

(3) An ocellus, or eyespot, consisting of a mass of carotenoid grains and a photoreceptor in pigmented unicellular organisms of the class Mastigophora. The function of the stigma is to sense light.


Stigma

 

in ancient Greece, a mark or brand inflicted on the body of a slave or criminal.

stigma

[′stig·mə]
(botany)
The rough or sticky apical surface of the pistil for reception of the pollen.
(invertebrate zoology)
The eyespot of certain protozoans, such as Euglena.
The spiracle of an insect or arthropod.
A colored spot on many lepidopteran wings.
(mechanics)
A unit of length used mainly in nuclear measurements, equal to 10-12 meter. Also known as bicron.

Stigma

mark of Cain
God’s mark on Cain, a sign of his shame for fratricide. [O. T.: Genesis 4:15]
scarlet letter
the letter “A” for “adultery” sewn on Hester Prynne’s garments. [Am. Lit.: Hawthorne The Scarlet Letter]

stigma

1. a small scar or mark such as a birthmark
2. Pathol
a. any mark on the skin, such as one characteristic of a specific disease
b. any sign of a mental deficiency or emotional upset
3. Botany the receptive surface of a carpel, where deposited pollen germinates
4. Zoology
a. a pigmented eyespot in some protozoans and other invertebrates
b. the spiracle of an insect
5. Archaic a mark branded on the skin
6. Christianity marks resembling the wounds of the crucified Christ, believed to appear on the bodies of certain individuals
References in periodicals archive ?
'The lack of knowledge about dementia and how an affected person might behave has led to stigma being associated with the disease,' she said, adding 'this campaign will focus on increasing conversations around dementia everywhere, as talking is often the first step to awareness, understanding and breaking barriers to diagnosis and care.'
The researchers found that weight-related stigma (both internalized and from other people) was associated with higher rates of depressive symptoms and dieting.
Participants recalled when in their life, they experienced weight stigma from other people, how frequent and how upsetting the experiences were, and who it was that called them names, rejected them, or denied them an opportunity simply because of their weight.
In terms of standardized scales or instruments for evaluating dementia-related stigma, there is no uniformly accepted "gold standard" measure, which makes it difficult to compare studies.
Orphan Stigma Scale13 is a 36-item self-report instrument designed to measure the stigma of orphans residing in orphan homes, with possible scores ranging from 0 to 144.
Different aspects associated to the perseverance of stigma against the psychologically ill, the likelihood of unusual and strange behavior that are unwanted and unpredictable with customs of the society; the risk of impulsive act as an outcome of being out of individual's mind; the danger of suicide and self-harm; the way that mass media depicts psychologically ill in an exaggerated way; resistance to psychiatric treatment that is sometimes regarded similar to "brainwashing"; the devastating effects of psychosis displayed through functional impairments; and stigmatization by the family whereby psychological disorders are viewed as "inherited in the family due to bad genes".
A 40-item structured questionnaire adapted from the HIV Stigma Scale by Berger, et al (12) was used for data collection due to its external validity.
Since Goffman's (1963) foundational work on "spoiled identities," stigma has been examined extensively.
But, since meeting Jake Mills, founder of Chasing the Stigma, at a mental health forum, the actor and presenter has continuously highlighted the Hub of Hope, most notably in a recent short film, which went viral after he surprised former Hollyoaks colleagues by turning up on their doorsteps.
Many colleges and universities across the United States have educational programs in addiction studies (see https://www.drugabuse.gov/related-topics/college-age-young-adults/college-addiction-studies-programs), but a gap exists in the literature about the potential benefits of undergraduate education in addiction studies in terms of changing SUD-related stigma.
A zero media campaign aimed at reducing social stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV and other sexual majority groups in Liberia is launched here with calls for joint effort in resisting these societal problems.