Sulfur isotope values suggest that the pyritized Stigmaria just below the ostracod-bearing open water interval at 950 m most likely formed in a closed system that had considerable amounts of dissolved sulfate --conditions suggestive of brackish water (Wagner et al.
Stigmaria occur in association with mineral paleosols and beneath organic-rich horizons.
Radiating carbonized roots associated with Stigmaria are present at 608.9 m, 856.3 m, 861.6 m, and 873.9 m.
A sandstone cast of Stigmaria was observed in red mudrock just above greenish-grey bands at 996.8 m (Fig.
Scattered organic-rich horizons, green mottles, and rare Stigmaria within redbeds suggests that some of these mudrocks were clastic wetlands where there was sufficient water to allow partial preservation of organics and growth of lycopsids.
Thus a single scale tree may be represented by a fossil stem called Lepidodendron, leaves called Lepidophyllum, and the spore-bearing organs Lepidostrobophyllum and Lepidostrobus, as well as the Stigmaria
Geologist and fossil tour guide, Tony Morgan, with one of the Museum's ammonites Pictures: PAUL HEAPS/ ph230209fossils-1; This beautiful ammonite is a feature of one of the polished slabs in Liverpool's Metquarter shopping centre; Tony, left, reveals a stigmaria
tap root, right, from the Carboniferous period 350m years ago, on the paving stones outside the World Museum; A 244myear- old coral fossil, on the bollards by the Steble Fountain
Observations sur la structure interieure du Sigillaria elegans comparee a celle des Lepidodendron et des Stigmaria
et a celle des vegetaux vivants.
For several years, it had been known that Stigmaria found in the underclay of coals was in fact the rhizophore of Sigillaria (Logan 1841; Brown 1846), and to this evidence Dawson was able to add many other convincing proofs (Fig.
Description of an upright Lepidodendron with Stigmaria roots in the roof of the Sydney Main Coal in the island of Cape Breton.
These grey sandstones, containing fossils of the clubmoss root Stigmaria
, are low-angle cross-stratified or parallel laminated, and overlie >0.5m of dark grey, often coaly mudstone.