stigmaria

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stigmaria:

see Lepidodendron and SigillariaLepidodendron and Sigillaria
, two principal genera of an extinct group of primitive vascular trees. They dominated the forests of the early Carboniferous period until the ferns gained ascendancy.
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Stigmaria

 

the subterranean rootlike part of the trunk of arborescent Lycopodiophyta that existed in the end of the Paleozoic. Stigmariae consisted of thick, dichotomous axes (rhizo- phores) with spirally attached appendixes (roots), which left scars after falling off. Layers with large numbers of stigmariae often formed in the areas of maritime mangrovelike thickets. The presence of stigmariae in geological deposits is an indicator of a frost- less climate.