stigma

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stigma:

see pistilpistil
, one of the four basic parts of a flower, the central structure around which are arranged the stamens, the petals, and the sepals. The pistil is usually called the female reproductive organ of a flowering plant, although the actual reproductive structures are microscopic.
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/

stigma

any physical or social attribute or sign (e.g. physical deformity or a criminal record) which so devalues an actor's social identity as to ‘disqualify from full social acceptance’ (GOFFMAN, 1964). Different implications follow for the stigmatized person according to whether the stigma is visible (the individual is obviously ‘discredited’), or hidden (the individual is potentially ‘discreditable’). The latter allows a greater number of options to the stigmatized person to manage his or her stigma. But in both cases the actor's problem lies in finding a means of limiting, or even turning to some advantage, the damaging effects of the stigma. As well as of interest in its own right, the study of stigmatized identities also throws light on the social construction of ‘normal’identities (see DEVIANCE).
Collins Dictionary of Sociology, 3rd ed. © HarperCollins Publishers 2000
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Stigma

 

the plant organ that receives pollen during pollination. The stigma usually develops on the apex of the style; if there is no style, the stigma develops directly on the ovary. Stigmas vary in shape and are often covered with papillae or hairs that facilitate retention of the pollen.


Stigma

 

(1) A spiracle, or breathing opening, of the trachea and lungs on the body surface in many arthropods, including arachnids, onychophorans, myriapods, and insects. Arachnids usually have two pairs of stigmata, solpugids have three pairs, and most acarians have one pair. There are many stigmata scattered all over the body of onychophorans. In myriapods, the paired stigmata are usually situated on the abdominal side of all or only some truncal segments. There are one to ten pairs of stigmata on the thoracic and abdominal segments of insects. The stigmata of insects are furnished with a closing apparatus and can be opened and closed to regulate the exchange of gases.

(2) One of the numerous gill openings in the pharynx of ascidi-ans, a group of chordate animals.

(3) An ocellus, or eyespot, consisting of a mass of carotenoid grains and a photoreceptor in pigmented unicellular organisms of the class Mastigophora. The function of the stigma is to sense light.


Stigma

 

in ancient Greece, a mark or brand inflicted on the body of a slave or criminal.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

stigma

[′stig·mə]
(botany)
The rough or sticky apical surface of the pistil for reception of the pollen.
(invertebrate zoology)
The eyespot of certain protozoans, such as Euglena.
The spiracle of an insect or arthropod.
A colored spot on many lepidopteran wings.
(mechanics)
A unit of length used mainly in nuclear measurements, equal to 10-12 meter. Also known as bicron.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Stigma

mark of Cain
God’s mark on Cain, a sign of his shame for fratricide. [O. T.: Genesis 4:15]
scarlet letter
the letter “A” for “adultery” sewn on Hester Prynne’s garments. [Am. Lit.: Hawthorne The Scarlet Letter]
Allusions—Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

stigma

1. a small scar or mark such as a birthmark
2. Pathol
a. any mark on the skin, such as one characteristic of a specific disease
b. any sign of a mental deficiency or emotional upset
3. Botany the receptive surface of a carpel, where deposited pollen germinates
4. Zoology
a. a pigmented eyespot in some protozoans and other invertebrates
b. the spiracle of an insect
5. Archaic a mark branded on the skin
6. Christianity marks resembling the wounds of the crucified Christ, believed to appear on the bodies of certain individuals
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Disparities in the health and social outcomes for MH users originate from stigma. Stigma is about labelling, devaluing and discriminating.
Stigma isolates people from friends and families, and leads to a cycle of disempowerment due to barriers to education, employment and housing.
"Stigma exists for, among other things, making us feel better about our own sense of self.
"However, when we get to the world of addiction, stigma is dangerous and our views on addiction and on addicts have sadly changed very little for many decades.
Individuals who have an awareness of the existence and prevalence of the public attitudes toward his or her own stigmatized group are said to possess perceived stigma (Luoma et al., 2007).
Apart from these direct effects on individuals, stigma and discrimination are often major barriers for the effective implementation of leprosy and rehabilitation programmes.
Overcoming selfincompatibility in Eruca sativa by chemical treatment of stigmas. Plant Genetic Resources, Wallingford, v.3, p.13-18, 2005.
Manalastas (2005) supported the idea that stigma is present among different gender minority groups in the Philippines.
Share your experiences of health stigmas at stigma@simonfoundation.org.
Stigma and discrimination towards people with HIV are a reality that has been documented in diverse countries (FIPSE, 2005; Fuster, Molero, Gil de Montes, Vitoria, & Agirrezabal, 2013; Fuster-RuizdeApodaca et al., 2014; Li, Liang, Lin, Wu, & Wen, 2009; Mahajan et al., 2008).
Floral biology refers to a comprehensive study of flowers which includes anthesis, dehiscence of anthers, pollen fertility and stigma receptivity (Kalloo, 1988).
Sociologists also use Goffman's definition as a starting point, but they emphasize the social and contextual determinants of stigma. Alonzo and Reynolds (1995) argue that "the stigmatized are a category of people who are pejoratively regarded by the broader society and who are devalued, shunned, or otherwise lessened in their life chances and in access to the humanizing benefit of free and unfettered social intercourse" (p.