were presented in a random sequence of 270 trials in 30 blocks.
An unpaired / test showed the difference in the number of training trials for participants receiving different stimuli
sets not to be significant, t(22) = 0.
Sosa (2014) recently has reviewed those kinds of procedures and their corresponding critiques regarding the demonstration of the conditioned reinforcement value by arbitrary stimuli
However, some authors have argued that a simple discrimination procedure with a successive presentation of stimuli
increases the probability of establishing a discriminated response that is controlled by aspects of the S+ and concurrently by aspects of the S- (Campos, Debert, Barros, & Mcllvane, 2011; Debert, 2003; Debert, Matos, & Mcllvane, 2007), which might not be the case in procedures with a simultaneous presentation of the stimuli
After presenting students with all possible pairs of stimuli
, educators determine preferences based on the proportion of times an item was selected from all presentations.
Squares of 10 x 10 cm made from commercially produced sandpapers (Debray, Barcelona, Spain) differing in roughness were used as the stimuli
(grit grade "4" as the rougher surface, and grit grade "6" as the smoother surface).
were presented in a random order, with the constraint that each 1-back-and-current luminance pair was presented with an equal frequency within a block.
(boxes) were placed on wooden stands 40 cm in height so that the gull was unable to see the box's contents.
Non-smoking carriers of the risk gene, however, did not process stimuli
Instructional programs in educational settings often involve compound stimuli
that are comprised of multiple relevant features, as well as other features not discriminative for reinforcement.
In sum, the findings seem to suggest that participants respond with respect to classes of stimuli
in the absence of verbal rules or naming processes.
We used the smallest possible frequency of vibration to illicit a response from the millipedes since weaker stimuli
require decreased time for habituation to occur compared to stronger stimuli