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in zoology, organ found in bees, many wasps, some ants, and in scorpions and sting rays, used defensively as well as to kill or paralyze prey. In the bee and the wasp the venomvenom
or zootoxin,
any of a variety of poisonous substances produced by animals. In poisonous snakes, venom is secreted in two poison glands, one on each side of the upper jaw, and enters the fang by a duct.
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 is produced by glands associated with the ovipositor (egg-laying organ) of the female. As symptoms differ, it is assumed that the venom of each species of insect probably has slightly different chemical properties. The bee's "acid gland" produces histamine and proteinlike substances that are extremely dangerous to persons with specific allergies to them. Adrenaline injections may be lifesaving in such cases. In the honeybee the sting is a minute needle with tiny serrated edges, the teeth of which point backward. This makes it hard for the insect to pull the organ loose and often results in the fatal loss of the sting, the poison gland, and part of the intestine. Hornets, yellow jackets, and other wasps have sharp, smooth stings that can be used repeatedly. A few ants produce formic acid as a venom. The scorpion kills its prey with poison injected by a curved spine at the tip of its tail; the wound is painful to human adults and may be fatal to children. Strictly speaking, spiders bite rather than sting, since they inject their venom by means of fanglike cheliceras. Coelenterates, e.g., the hydra, jellyfish, and certain corals, are equipped with stinging capsules (nematocysts) consisting of a trigger mechanism that, when stimulated, raises the hydrostatic pressure of the cell so that hollow venom-bearing threads are ejected with enough force to pierce the prey. The larger coelenterates, e.g., the Portuguese man-of-war and Cyanea, are dangerous to man. The stingrays, or stingarees, have long whiplike tails bearing one to three sharply toothed, bony, poisonous stingers capable of inflicting painful wounds.


1. a skin wound caused by the poison injected by certain insects or plants
2. pain caused by or as if by the sting of a plant or animal
3. a sharp pointed organ, such as the ovipositor of a wasp, by which poison can be injected into the prey
4. Slang a trap set up by the police to entice a person to commit a crime and thereby produce evidence


A parallel dialect of Scheme intended to serve as a high-level operating system for symbolic programming languages. First-class threads and processors and customisable scheduling policies.

E-mail: <>.

["A Customizable Substrate for Concurrent Languages", S. Jagannathan et al, ACM SIGPLAN Notices, 1992].
References in periodicals archive ?
1-rated bee sting treatment by pharmacists and the top customer-rated product on Amazon, com for insect bite treatment and relief, says Creagan.
Symptoms of anaphylactic shock caused by stings include blistering, breathing difficulties, itching, nausea, fever, excessive drooling, vomiting, swellings and hives.
Conclusions: Since there is a large number of cases with a history of previous scorpion stings, it appears we can reduc e the incidence of this occurrence using education of preventing and control ways from this phenomenon to persons referred to treatment in the studied area and repeat those in similar regions with high range of scorpion sting.
Background: Scorpion sting envenomation is an acute life-threatening, time-limited medical emergency, commonly seen in villagers.
But that was the spur for the scientist to explore how pain affects humans - by forcing the insects to sting him, literally from head to toe, over five weeks.
Statistics of each year is presented in Table II which shows that the incidence of scorpion stings were similar rate during 2006-2010; however , the largest of scorpion stings data were happened in 2006 (22.
First aid for insect stings is to use a cold compress or ice cube to cool the area, and take an ordinary painkiller such as paracetamol.
If your friend or loved one is stung by a bee/wasp try to make them as comfortable as possible and if visible, scrape the sting off sideways with your fingernail.
Once out, slowly pouring seawater over the sting will help ease the pain.
8,9 Considerable epidemiologi-cal studies on scorpion stings have been performed in several countries, such as Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, Iran, Brazil and Mexico.
Bee stings are very common and are serious for those who are allergic to them.
Furas Al-Rawhani said he was treated with bee stings and is now feeling better after frequenting several hospitals.