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inflammation of the oral mucosa accompanied by degenerative changes in the oral cavity. In humans, stomatitis may be caused by mechanical, thermal, chemical, or physical injury, hypovitaminosis, diabetes mellitus, diseases of the cardiovascular, nervous, hematopoietic, and digestive systems, acute infections (for example, measles, scarlet fever, and diphtheria), chronic infections (for example, tuberculosis), poisoning, and parasitic fungi (for example, thrush).
The factors that cause traumatic stomatitis include deposits of dental calculus, decayed carious teeth, poorly made prostheses and fillings, foreign objects, burns produced by hot food, and the action of alkalies and acids. A catarrhal process develops after short exposure to an injurious factor, with the mucous membrane becoming hyperemic and edematous and bleeding easily. Prolonged exposure results in the formation of ulcers, around which inflammatory phenomena develop.
Stomatitis caused by systemic diseases is characterized by the appearance of aphthae on the oral mucosa; it may be acute or chronic. Acute stomatitis aphthosa usually occurs in children suffering from gastrointestinal diseases, diatheses, or viral diseases. The body temperature is high, and aphthae surrounded by a bright red border appear on the mucosa of the gums, lips, and palate. There is profuse salivation, and the submaxillary lymph nodes become enlarged and tender. The disease lasts seven to ten days. Chronic recurrent stomatitis aphthosa is characterized by the periodic appearance of solitary aphthae on the buccal mucosa, the lateral surface of the tongue, and the lower lip. The bottoms of the aphthae are covered with a grayish yellow coating. The lymph nodes are usually not enlarged. The disease lasts five to ten days, after which the aphthae epithelize or are transformed into ulcers.
Ulcerative stomatitis commonly accompanies acute enterocolitis, gastric ulcer, and mercury and bismuth poisoning. It may result from tonsillitis or influenza. Ulcers may appear over the entire mucosa. A disagreeable odor emanates from the mouth, and salivation is profuse. With blood diseases (leukemias), aphthae appear on the oral mucosa and tonsils; the aphthae are eventually transformed into ulcers. Radiation sickness is characterized by the same symptoms.
Preventive and therapeutic measures include good oral hygiene, the elimination of the causes of the disease, rinsing of the mouth with a salt solution or boric acid (depending on the pH of the oral environment), physical therapy, and the application of sea-buckthorn oil.
REFERENCERybakov, A. I. Stomatity. Moscow, 1964.
Treatment methods include irrigating the oral mucosa with disinfectants and astringents. Specific treatment is indicated in cases of secondary stomatitis.