It is best to start with the atmospheric analog in water, the hydraulic jump, which the AMS Glossary of Meteorology defines as a "sudden and usually turbulent passage of water in an open channel from low stage, below critical depth, to high stage, above critical depth." In the case of the atmosphere, the water is replaced by a stably stratified fluid
of air adjacent to the ground.
The generation of internal waves by tidal force occurs in the stratified fluid
when propagation of barotropic tidal currents interacts with rough surface topography, resulting in vertical movement and of local internal pressure.
Therefore, the amount of transported oxygen depends not only on molecular diffusion but also on natural convection, and it is important to know a mixing process of different kinds of gases in the stable or unstable stratified fluid
Chapters cover the system properties of the earth-atmosphere system, the basic meteorological variables, and thermodynamic processes related to atmospheric circulation; the physical basis of the general circulation of the atmosphere, the heat and moisture cycle, the influence of local physical and geographical conditions of atmospheric air movements, and patterns of development of man-made and natural processes in the boundary layer; the basic equations of mechanics of viscous stratified fluid
used in the simulation of atmospheric circulation; problems related to the modeling of atmospheric processes of various scales; the development and use of parameterization methods of sub-scale processes; and analysis of numerical methods for reproducing specific physical processes.
Deka and Paul [22, 23] presented the analytical investigation of transient free convection flow past an infinite moving vertical cylinder in a stably stratified fluid
including thermal stratification by employing Laplace transform technique.
In view of the barotropic fluid and stratified fluid
model, the KdV and mKdV equation are also generated to describe the generation and evolution of Rossby solitary waves by Redekopp .
The evolution of long internal waves (IWs) with small amplitudes in a stably stratified fluid
is governed approximately by a linear wave equation, with small but cumulative corrections due to weak nonlinearity, dispersion and dissipation, and possibly to a slowly varying background.
[15, 16] discussed the effects of periodic external source on the generation of algebraic Rossby solitary waves in stratified fluid
and studied the effects of topographic forcing and dissipation on solitary Rossby waves.
 have considered the magnetohydrodynamic unsteady flow of a viscous stratified fluid
through a porous medium past a porous flat moving plate in the slip flow regime with heat source.
Imberger, "Selective withdrawal through a point sink in a continuously stratified fluid
with a pycnocline," Tech.