The stream order
at bridge sites was based upon a stream order
classification layer (updated October 16, 2014) produced by the Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality and downloaded from the Arkansas GIS office web site (www.gis.arkansas.gov).
The stream order
of watershed is 1st to 5th order, depicts dendritic type drainage pattern.
Functional feeding classification of aquatic organisms enhances of trophic dynamics in aquatic systems, as aquatic insects derive their nutrition from a spatially and temporally variable system since streams and rivers are characterized by seasonal, local, and stream order
differences in inputs, production, and storage of food resources .
Finally, it was found that the rate of Light erosion was great in upper stream and decrease toward the outlet, while the heavy erosion appear in downstream, suggesting presence of a clear correlation between the stream order
and degree of water erosion, whereas the sheet erosion correlated with Initial orders, while Rill and Gully erosion correlated with major orders.
These examples demonstrate that Giant Burrowing Frogs are capable of using a diverse range of sites to attempt breeding, but breeding opportunities can be highly variable and often limited temporally, being influenced by factors including rainfall (and other meteorological effects), hydrology, geology and stream order
. This is especially applicable to first, third and fourth order streams because they often provide either fast-flowing water or no water.
It is also observed that there is a decrease in stream frequency as the stream order
Identification of the stream order
is an essential requirement in the drainage basin analysis as introduced by Horton (1945) and slightly modified by Strahler (1956).
In many studies, the selection is performed in accordance with a hierarchy, which is known as "stream order
", and developed by Horton (1945), Strahler (1957), and Shreve (1966), assigned to the components of a stream network.
All sites selected were 3rd order streams and topographic maps and aerial photographs obtained from the Indiana University GIS spatial data portal (topographic maps from USGS 1984; and aerial photography from Google Earth 2010) were used to determine stream order
according to Cole (1994).
A similar stream-order classification system was also applied, with the smallest unbranched streams on the 1:250000 map sheet classed as first-order streams, and stream order
increasing with the number of upstream branches (Hall 1992a: 38-39; Land Conservation Council 1989: 207).
We attempted to distribute effort proportionately to length and width of the channel in each of the remaining stream orders
. Effort in the fourth stream order
was meager, but turtles were likely to encounter our nets in the narrow channel (Fig.
The South Coast Rivers are often of higher stream order
(greater channel width) and tend to meander through a flood plain before entering the sea.