streaming


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streaming

[′strēm·iŋ]
(computer science)
A malfunction in which a communicating device constantly transmits worthless data and thereby locks out all other devices on the line.

streaming

a form of organization in schools where pupils are grouped according to their overall ability. This form of differentiation has been, and still remains, a common feature of UK schools, although there are numerous variations of it, such as ‘banding’ or 'setting’. There is also some evidence to suggest that, in primary schools at least, formal streaming is now much less common (Reid 1986). Its justification is to be found in the psychological tradition of education and derives from the evidence presented by Cyril Burt to the Hadow Committee in 1931. British use of streaming is almost unique. It is illegal in Norway, has been abolished in the Soviet Union, and is not used in the US or France.

Streaming rests on two basically simple beliefs: that since children vary in their ability (however this is defined) they learn best in classes of children with similar ability and that such classes are better, or more easily, taught. By contrast, mixed ability classes are believed to hamper the learning of both bright and dull children and make teaching difficult. Literature in the SOCIOLOGY OF EDUCATION is replete with studies on the nature of streaming and its consequences for the educational achievement of children.

Children are allocated to different streams on the basis of standardized tests in English, Arithmetic and IQ tests (see INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT), although some weight is also given to teachers’ subjective assessments. Considerable research exists to suggest that streaming appears to favour children with particular ascribed characteristics, especially parental social class (Douglas, 1964). Other evidence suggests that streaming involves social as well as academic differentiation, where teachers, consciously or otherwise, discriminate between pupils according to perceptions of their social class origins (Barker Lunn, 1970). It leads to ‘covert’ streaming in both streamed and unstreamed classes.

Streaming practices have considerable effects on the life of a school and the performance of children. Several studies show that streaming is a self-fulfilling prophecy, others suggest that it reinforces social class differences, structures pupils’ friendships and the development of informal cultures (Hargreaves, 1967; Lacey, 1970).

streaming

(communications)
Playing sound or video in real time as it is downloaded over the Internet as opposed to storing it in a local file first. A plug-in to a web browser such as Netscape Navigator decompresses and plays the data as it is transferred to your computer over the World-Wide Web. Streaming audio or video avoids the delay entailed in downloading an entire file and then playing it with a helper application. Streaming requires a fast connection and a computer powerful enough to execute the decompression algorithm in real time.

streaming

Transmitting digital audio or video content while users listen or watch. Material can be streamed from a private network or the public Internet, the latter now the streaming capital of the world. To the user, streaming is the same as listening to radio or watching cable, satellite or broadcast TV, except that a connection to the Internet is required. Like cable and satellite TV, content can be streamed on demand or on a regular schedule.

Unlike downloading files, which remain in the computer until the user deletes them, streaming content is automatically deleted from the computer, set-top box, smart TV or mobile device after being played.

Streaming, Downloading and Transmitting
Because streamed content is actually being downloaded (if only temporarily), and downloading means transmitting to the user's device, the term streaming is often erroneously used as a synonym for downloading, as well as any kind of transmission. See stream, streaming audio, streaming video, adaptive streaming and home theater streaming.
References in periodicals archive ?
The rapidly shifting nature of the Internet means that we must consider Web streaming today, even though many Web surfers will be without a high bandwidth connection until tomorrow.
Tremendous increase in the number of Internet and mobile users has transformed these media into viable sources of communication, information, and entertainment leading to a parallel surge in the adoption of media streaming platforms.
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Combined commercial market value (backhaul provisioning, retail contracts) for streaming audio, video, streaming audio and video advertising, download media and entertainment is estimated at between $385 million to $452 million in 2005
For the first time, this annual CDN research study includes cost/revenue analysis associated with streaming advertising (audio, video, Flash and non-Flash) and download media (movies, television and music files).
VT-Stream successfully combines the strengths of circuit and packet networks to deliver customers real-time on-demand streaming video content," said Paul Zuber, Chief Executive Officer of Dilithium Networks.
The Sourcebook, which reaches a total of 22,000 readers, will be followed in May, September, and November by issues of Streaming Media magazine, delivered to subscribers and offered in digital format to 100,000 StreamingMedia.
The top ten individual streaming video sites, brands, networks and channels account for a 72% share of all streams served in 2004
Many of the CDNs in this report also have developed custom streaming advertising solutions, in cooperation with vendors such as Macromedia, Eyewonder and Klipmart, and those integrated solutions are also examined.
Real's leading products are in digital music, games, and video, and with the present domination of music and video in the streaming media market, this puts them in the leading position.
The VitalStream Authenticated Streaming Service is compatible with any Web-services authentication system, including .