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inflammation of the pharynx



acute or chronic inflammation of the mucous membrane of the pharynx.

Acute pharyngitis in man is caused primarily by microbes (streptococcus, staphylococcus, and pneumococcus) and viruses (grippe and the adenoviruses); in the case of a severe cold or sinusitis, the inflammation frequently spreads to the pharynx from the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. The symptoms of pharyngitis are dryness of the pharynx, painful swallowing—especially in the absence of food or drink—and a body temperature ranging from normal to 37.5°C. Treatment includes gargling with alkaline and disinfectant solutions, drinking warm liquids, and a bland diet.

Chronic pharyngitis may result from repeated acute infections of the pharynx, chronic infections in the nose and paranasal sinuses, chronic tonsillitis, and prolonged irritation of the mucous membrane of the pharynx caused by smoking, alcohol abuse, the inhalation of dust or noxious gases, and overexposure to cold. The symptoms are dryness of the pharynx, a burning or tickling sensation (a “scratchy” throat), painful swallowing, coughing, and the frequent need to expectorate. The condition is treated by removing the causative factors, gargling or rinsing the pharynx with alkaline solutions (inhalation), and applying a solution of Lugol’s caustic in glycerine to the posterior wall of the pharynx.


See references under LARYNGITIS.
Pharyngitis in animals is caused by the penetration of microorganisms in the pharyngeal tissues, usually resulting from a chill to the body or from the effect of extreme cold on the mucous membrane of the pharynx. Certain infectious diseases, such as anthrax, strangles, and pasteurellosis, may be accompanied by pharyngitis. The symptoms include difficulty in swallowing, excessive salivation, nasal discharge (with nasal regurgitation of food), swelling and soreness in the region of the pharynx, and—in acute pharyngitis—elevation of body temperature. Treatment includes application of heat to the affected areas, parenteral treatment with sulfanilamides and antibiotics, and serotherapy.


Inflammation of the pharynx.
References in periodicals archive ?
A recent systematic review noted nine published decision rules for diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis, (21) but the only one that has been prospectively validated in a primary care population of both children and adults is by McIssac (22,23) (Table 1).
A total of 90 children aged 4-21 years with group A beta hemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis were randomized to receive one oral daily dose of 0.
For patients who have documented streptococcal pharyngitis and are allergic to penicillin, the use of a 5-day course of one of the study antibiotics is reasonable.
Pure or predominant sore throat is characteristic of streptococcal pharyngitis in 95% of cases and suggests the need for culture or a rapid strep test.
Prevention of these complications might better serve as the rationale for culture confirmation of negative antigen tests were it not for the fact that most of these infections typically occur in young adults, a population in which group A streptococcal pharyngitis is relatively uncommon, and are typically polymicrobial in origin, with anaerobic organisms commonly identified.
Throat cultures, or the use of throat cultures to confirm negative rapid test results, remain necessary in children if optimal identification of group A streptococcal pharyngitis is to be ensured.
Group A streptococcal pharyngitis typically appears in winter and early spring in children aged 5-15 years, although infection also can occur in younger children and adults, particularly those who are in contact with younger children.
They used recently published statistics for the rates of penicillin reaction, acute rheumatic fever (ARF) following untreated streptococcal pharyngitis, morbidity and mortality from ARF, effectiveness of penicillin treatment in preventing ARF, suppurative complications following streptococcal pharyngitis, and effectiveness of penicillin treatment in preventing suppurative complications.
Once-Daily Therapy for Streptococcal Pharyngitis With Amoxicillin" (Pediatrics 103[1]:47-51, 1999).
For pharyngitis, the key message is that a diagnosis of group A streptococcal pharyngitis should be made using a laboratory test in conjunction with clinical and epidemiologic findings, said Dr.
SAN FRANCISCO -- Penicillin remains the treatment of Choice for acute streptococcal pharyngitis despite its failure to eradicate the streptococci in one-third of children in a large prospective study, the chief investigator reported.

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