Extensive appendices develop formulas for calculating the strength and reinforcement of reinforced concrete beams in a cross-section considering the 5th degree curvilinear Eurocode diagram of concrete stress, and for calculating beam strength in the perpendicular section according to the 3rd degree curvilinear Eurocode stress diagram
of compressed concrete.
Therefore, the tensile zone of concrete above the crack can be disregarded, and the ultimate crack depth of the element could be evaluated according to Figure 4, by using the equivalent rectangular concrete compressive stress diagram
With double-digit stress diagram
, the section usually goes through three typical stages of stress-strain state.
Therefore, in normal section strength analytical and experimental studies of reinforced concrete beams attention is paid to the concrete compressive stress and strain interdependence and the character of the stress diagram
In these structures, one can decrease stress concentration using provisions like change of material, thickness (uniform and step form), using shell of different thickness (according to changes of stress diagram
), using an amplification ring or loop around the opening and also inside of it.
Trapezoidal normal stress diagram
is taken for determination of the compression zone.
In the lifetime assessment, the alternating stress against the mean stress determines the fatigue damage of a mechanical component, as determined with the Haigh's Mean Stress Diagram
. Reduction of the alternating stress has a direct impact on the lifetime extension, especially for engines operating with variable rotational speed.
Figure the strain stress diagram
by stretching wires and measuring their length after each weight increment.
Comparison of theoretical and experimental values of tensions was performed by comparing the stress diagram
ox, oy and xxy in sections, which were equipped with strain gauges.
Calculation of strength at cross-sections of beams according to the euronorm curvilinear concrete stress diagram
, Journal of Young Scientists 3(36): 140-148 (in Lithuanian).
It can be concluded that a concrete stress-strain curve varies but, according to EC2, concrete stress diagram
coefficients [lambda] and [eta]  are constant for the concrete of examined classes.
Parameters of the nonlinear stress diagram
of flanges and strengthening / weakening