variation assessed by a FlowTrac transducer and Vigileo monitor and PPV assessed by anaesthesia workstation-integrated monitors showed comparable performance in predicting fluid responsiveness in patients undergoing major surgeries.
The major findings of this study were that the youth soccer players demonstrated a higher stroke volume
, cardiac output, and peak cutaneous blood flow following HIIE in hypoxia than in normoxia.
Measurements included the stroke volume
and Left ventricular end-diastolic diameter.
(2005) A review of the stroke volume
response to upright exercise in healthy subjects.
(1980)  evaluated changes in blood pressure and other hemodynamic parameters (stroke volume
, cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance) in 18 healthy men before and during exposure to recorded industrial noise.
Goal-directed fluid therapy using stroke volume
variation does not result in pulmonary fluid overload in thoracic surgery requiring one-lung ventilation.
The ability of stroke volume
variations btained with Vigileo/FloTrac system to monitor fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients.
It is dependent on the LV EDV and LV stroke volume
.  In cardiovascular physiology, EDV is the volume of blood in the right and/or left ventricle at the end load or filling in (diastole).
Cardiac output is the product of stroke volume
and heart rate, and the stroke volume
can be obtained by measuring the area and velocity time integral of the LV outflow tract (LVOT), and the value is close to the result obtained by the pulmonary artery catheter., Left systolic function can be assessed by LV ejection fraction, which can be calculated indirectly from the LV fractional shortening by measuring the LV end-systolic diameter and end-diastolic diameter in patients without regional dysfunction.
When we look at volumetric needs for the patient we have to go back to our basic physiology and its concepts like cardiac output (CO), stroke volume
(SV), oxygen delivery (D[O.sub.2]) and arterial oxygen content (Ca[O.sub.2]) and of course the Franck Starling's law.
Derived from heart--lung interactions during mechanical ventilation, dynamic parameters such as stroke volume
variation (SVV) and pulse pressure variation (PPV) have been shown to more reliably predict response to a fluid challenge than traditional static parameters, including central venous pressure (CVP) or pulmonary artery occlusion pressure (6, 7).
The cardiovascular responses that occur during an acute bout of exercise include changes in heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO), stroke volume
(SV), blood pressure (BP), and rate pressure product (RPP) (2,5).