strychnine


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Related to strychnine: arsenic, cyanide

strychnine

(strĭk`nĭn), bitter alkaloid drug derived from the seeds of a tree, Strychnos nux-vomica, native to Sri Lanka, Australia, and India. It has been used as a rat poison for five centuries, and rat biscuits still remain a cause of accidental poisoning in humans. Strychnine is a potent stimulant of the spinal cord; it also increases the secretion of gastric juices and heightens sensory awareness. Strychnine poisoning is characterized by violent convulsions. It is treated by keeping the victim absolutely quiet and administering barbiturate sedatives and artificial respiration. See first aidfirst aid,
immediate and temporary treatment of a victim of sudden illness or injury while awaiting the arrival of medical aid. Proper early measures may be instrumental in saving life and ensuring a better and more rapid recovery.
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Strychnine

 

an alkaloid contained in the seeds of the strychnine tree (Strychnos nux-vomica) and in the seeds of other plants of the genus Strychnos growing mainly in tropical Asia and Africa. Strychnine was discovered in 1818 by the French chemists P. J. Pelletier and J. B. Caventou, and its structure was established in 1946 by R. Robinson. In 1954, R. B. Woodward and his colleagues achieved a complete synthesis of strychnine (approximately 30 steps). In its chemical structure strychnine is a complex polycyclic compound with the formula C21H22O2N2; it is a strong monoacid base difficultly soluble in water and readily soluble in alcohol and chloroform.

Strychnine is highly poisonous and is used for the extermination of animal pests. Strychnine nitrate and galenicals obtained from the seeds of Strychnos plants are used in medicine. In therapeutic doses, strychnine stimulates the reflex functions of the spinal cord and increases the excitability of the oblongatal (respiratory, vasomotor centers; center of vagus nerves) and higher centers of the brain. In toxic doses, strychnine causes characteristic tetanic convulsions (opisthotonus, risus sardonicus). The effect of strychnine derives from the ability to facilitate the transmission of excitation in the interneuronal synapses of the spinal cord, primarily in the region of the internuncial neurons, which act as inhibitory cells. The effect is also due to strychnine’s ability to reduce the reflex reaction time in nerve centers and intensify the dissemination of excitation in the spinal cord.

V. V. PARIN

strychnine

[′strik‚nīn]
(organic chemistry)
C21H22O2N2 An alkaloid obtained primarily from the plant nux vomica, formerly used for therapeutic stimulation of the central nervous system.

strychnine

a white crystalline very poisonous alkaloid, obtained from the plant nux vomica: formerly used in small quantities as a stimulant of the central nervous system and the appetite. Formula: C21H22O2N2
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Exhumation and examination of the bodies revealed massive amounts of strychnine in the stomachs of all three victims.
Don't touch it; that's strychnine,' the man told me," Alaa remembers, "but at that time nothing stopped me from collecting the pieces off the ground.
The toxic principles include strychnine and brucine extracted from seeds as a colorless, odorless, bitter material.
Strychnine is a banned nerve poison which is often used to treat rats and other rodents.
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Pentylene tetrazole (PTZ), Scopolamine Ha, Cyproheptadine HCL, Yohimbine, Strychnine, Atropine HCL, Naloxone and Caffeine HCL (Sigma Chemicals Co.
Nurzaman, the head of the Jambi Natural Resources Conservation Agency, said laboratory tests showed the animals died from strychnine poisoning, a toxic substance often used as rodent poison.
This modern method helped control mole populations by using a worm laced with strychnine that was dropped down a mole hill or its run, and later consumed by the mole, with fatal consequences.
Morgan had been accused of poisoning her with strychnine injected into the mince pies after the vial had been found in his coat pocket.
The examination revealed a high level of strychnine in his body, according to BugE-n.
Brewster's family includes two spinster aunts who have taken to murdering lonely old men (as an "act of kindness") by poisoning them with a glass of home-made elderberry wine laced with arsenic, strychnine and "just a pinch" of cyanide.
In the attempt to control it, he regularly ingested up to 28 drugs, including "anti-gas" pills based on strychnine, a poison that caused him liver and stomach ailments.