In the second stage, we used multilevel binomial logistic regression and area-level variables to estimate the log odds of moderate stunting
or severe stunting
in rural areas and urban areas, respectively ([Y.sup.(A).sub.ijk]), where the superscript A refers to rural or urban area, as a function of national-level stunting
has to be avoided, health departments need to focus on preventive healthcare, education departments to increase literacy levels especially amongst women, local governments to provide good sanitation services and hygienic neighbourhoods, poverty-alleviation programmes to design targeted conditional cash-transfer programmes and the food authorities to ensure supply of fortified food and enforce standards.
Given its long-term negative effects on human capital development and poverty eradication, stunting
is high on the government of Rwandas political and development agenda.
is the condition of being substantially shorter than the average height for one's age.
There is another factor that causes high rates of stunting
in South Asia, and that is the poor nutrition of mothers before and during pregnancy.
are unaware of balanced nutrition, which is main reason of stunting
, or low height for age, is caused by long-term insufficient nutrient-intake and frequent infections.
K-P Planning and Development Department officials have stated that the stunting
ratio for children in the province has fallen from 47% to 42% over the last five years.
Prevention and Reduction Project will support community-based approaches, improve the delivery of high-impact nutrition and health interventions, incentivize frontline community health workers and health personnel, strengthen accountability mechanisms, and promote a learning-by-doing approach to draw lessons on what works and how it can be scaled up.
'Doctors later on told me that stunting
after the first 1,000 days of a child's life is irreversible,' she said.
We estimated child stunting
attributable to climate change in five regions in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) in 2050.
Since then, malnutrition which includes stunting
, wasting and obesity have been firmly on the political agenda.