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any system of beliefs, values and norms which is shared and actively participated in by an appreciable minority of people within a particular culture. The relationship of the subculture to the so-called dominant culture has been identified as one of subordination and relative powerlessness. Power relations are therefore an important dimension of any sociological consideration of subculture.

Subcultures have been examined in terms of ETHNICITY, CLASS, DEVIANCE and YOUTH CULTURE. R. MERTON constructed a typology of possible responses to a dysjunction between means and goals. These responses might give rise to a number of different subcultures. S. Cohen (1971) has noted the emergence of a succession of youth subcultures in the postwar era, for example, in Britain, ‘Teds’, ‘Mods’, ‘Rockers’ and ‘Punks’. It has been suggested that such subcultures serve as ‘magical solutions’ to the problems created for young working-class people in contemporary Western societies (Brake, 1980). They serve to provide a means of establishing both individual and group identity They are discernible largely through stylistic expression, particularly language, demeanour, music, dress and dance.

Subcultures, like culture generally, are the result of collective creativity and are therefore subject to historical change and transformation. Feminist theorists such as McRobbie and Garber (1976), McRobbie (1991) have noted that gender is rarely considered in the study of subcultures. They have raised important questions concerning the relationship of young women to youth subcultures. See also CULTURAL STUDIES, CULTURAL CAPITAL, CULTURAL DEPRIVATION, CULTURAL LAG, CULTURAL (AND LINGUISTIC) RELATIVISM.

References in periodicals archive ?
Despite perceptions of conformity, Japan is also famous for the influence of its subcultures, mixing punk with petticoats, the dramatic with the demure, action heroes with 'kawaii' (cuteness).
In culture medium supplemented with 10 [micro]M BA, the average number of shoots in the third subculture was higher than that in previous subcultures (i.
Clear communications of the horizon towards which the organization was moving were specifically adapted to each subculture and included in the transition plan.
Through a "mode" of style, being "hip" helps to establish the identity of the subculture while defining the group and its individuals against each other or the mainstream (Ford 2002).
The Dark Court is aligned with biker subculture given that its members ride "steeds" that appear as motorbikes (and occasionally as cars) to humans.
Our latest album Subculture has been best received so it really is all about doing new songs - you don't get the same old show from The Selecter.
We are great believers in calling things as we see them and we realise that Ska/2-Tone was, and still is, an umbrella for many subcultures.
Organization culture was extensively investigated by researchers in last few decades but optimism subculture defined as work unit cultural values directed at encouraging innovation focused on result rather than activities considering the effect of outcomes on employees and stressing teamwork (Green Jr.
Sandra & Sonia, taken from REVEALED: Youth culture, pop | |culture, subculture - The Photographs of Francesco Mellina 1977-1982 FRANCESCO
Existing literature in this area suggests that multiple subcultures hold diverse and possibly conflicting shared meanings concerning CSR (Garavan, Heraty, Rock & Dalton 2010) and that this may be due to the fact that the members of each subculture develop different assumptions and meanings of CSR which are distinct from that of other subcultures (Linnenluecke & Griffiths 2010).
The micropropagation cycle consisted of a monthly subculture of nodal segments after the removal of the new in vitro shoots onto a fresh medium to produce a large number of in vitro shoots.