There are other non-finites that retain more of the properties associated with finites than the English subjunctives
Since the Tocharian PP is obviously cognate in its reduplication and endings with the perfect participle of the classical IE languages, the task is to explain how it came to be paired semantically with the preterite, which continues the PIE aorist--while the (proto-)perfect with *o ~ *[empty set] ablaut became one of the sources of the Tocharian subjunctive
. (6) Saito largely ignores the latter in his discussion and, like most other scholars, assumes that the (post-)PIE aorist and perfect merged functionally in Tocharian, as in many other IE languages (pp.
This week our Spanish class has been struggling with the subjunctive
First, a systematic comparison of the usage of the desiderative with the uses of the moods that might seem partially to overlap it, namely the subjunctive
and the optative.
Some of the latter forms may represent subjunctives
.(11) For instance, jahghananta (RV 1.88.2d) is likely to be a subjunctive
For the other subordinators the coverage is, not surprisingly, less thorough, but all examples with optatives and subjunctives
seem to have been examined.
The footnote in Okin's and Morgan's editions goes one step further, offering a nuanced observation to help us appreciate how sly Mill is: "By using the present est instead of the subjunctive
sit, Mill misquotes Bacon, thereby making a more pejorative judgment of the views of the many." (11) This part of the note is bizarre, because it shows that whoever is responsible for this bit of editorial sophistication knows at least enough Latin to distinguish the indicative and subjunctive
forms of the present tense of esse, 'to be,' but not enough to spot the mistaken translation.
Given his hostility to intensional locutions, it is not surprising that Quine was suspicious of the subjunctive
Hence, the subjunctive
applies suitably for those on the periphery.
(i) Consider the subjunctive
conditional "If it were the case that p, then it would be the case that q" (p [unkeyable] q).