Subordination

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Subordination

 

hypotaxis, formally expressed dependency of one syntactic element (word or sentence) upon another.

By subordination, two types of syntactic units are formed—word combinations and complex sentences. The word in a word combination that determines the linkage by virtue of its grammatical, word-formational, or lexical properties is the main word; the word that realizes the linkage in some prescribed form is the dependent word. Determinative, circumstantial, objective, and other types of syntactic relationships may exist between the units.

In Russian, the basic types of subordination are agreement, government, and parataxis. Indicators of subordination are case endings (sometimes with prepositions) or, as in adverbs, the invariability itself of words. Supplementary means of subordination are intonation and word order. Subordination may be strong and manifested of necessity (as in chitat’ knigu,“to read a book”; s”ekhat’ s gory,“to descend from the mountain”) or weak (as in the agreement in khoroshaia kniga,“a good book”). From a lexical standpoint, subordination may be free, limited, or, in phraseology, closed. In a complex sentence, subordination acts as the link between the main clause and subordinate clause. Indicators include subordinating conjunctions, relative pronouns, tense and mood forms of the verb-predicate in the subordinate clause, and word order. In cases of mutual subordination, there is an indicator of subordination in both clauses. As a grammatically expressed relationship of dependency, subordination stands in contrast to coordination.

I. N. KRUCHININA


Subordination

 

(in Russian, primykanie), a type of syntactic construction in which verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and nouns are the main words, and adverbs, adverbial participles, degrees of comparison, and infinitives are dependent words. Examples are seen in chitat’gromko (“to read loudly”), poitipoguliat’ (“to go for a walk”), ochen’ veselo (“very gaily”), and slegka grustnyi (“slightly sad”). Subordination is a grammatical linkage, not just a semantic or positional one. This is true even though subordination is expressed not by changes in the forms of words—the dependent words are not inflected—but by categorial indicators linked to parts of speech. Subordination is sometimes defined as a linkage that is neither agreement nor government. Various kinds of modifier relationships are established between main words and dependent words by subordination and therefore dependent words usually function as adverbial modifiers in a sentence.


Subordination

 

in physiology, the influence that the central nervous system constantly exerts on the functioning of the peripheral nervous system as well as the influence of any one division of the central nervous system on the functioning of other divisions (the latter phenomenon is called intercentral subordination). Subordination causes changes in the threshold of stimulation, chronaxie, refractory period, adaptation, lability, and rate of propagation of excitation. I. M. Sechenov, in 1863, was the first to observe that the central nervous system influences the excitability of peripheral nerves. The term “subordination” was proposed by the French physiologist L. Lapicque (1928), who studied the effect of the central nervous system on the chronaxie of peripheral nerves.

References in periodicals archive ?
Notwithstanding our predictions in H2a-H2c, there are several reasons why providing subordinates with information about their co-workers' budgets and performance may not increase subordinate budget proposals, reduce budget slack, and increase subordinate performance when resources are fixed.
Stingray has not repurchased any Subordinate Shares in the last 12 months.
As senior bonds amortize, related reserve releases become available to the subordinate bonds.
Thus, a subordinate lawyer cannot blindly follow a supervising lawyer's instruction, but is permitted to rely on the judgment of a supervising lawyer only in cases in which there is an "arguable question of professional duty" and the supervising lawyer's resolution of the issue is reasonable.
In other words, what part of your lie do you think was most influential in making your subordinate [supervisor] think you were telling the truth?" The most common response from supervisors was the simple "believability" of the lie (28.10%), 18.80% cited their own leverage/power as an authority, 12.50% indicated their ability to remove the power distance and act as a friend rather than a boss, 12.50% cited their credibility (deception was uncharacteristic of them), and 6.20% indicated their nonverbals were the most persuasive part of the deception (e.g., their tone of voice, eye contact).
The effort level of the manager is [e.sub.m] and the effort level of a subordinate is [e.sub.s].
Moreover, Deluga and Perry (1994) found support for a positive association between subordinate Ingratiation including opinion conformity, other enhancement and self-presentation and higher quality exchanges.
Lee, normally an excellent communicator and integrator, seemed disorganized and out of touch with his key subordinates during most of the battle.
The research sets forth pressures that affect logical judgments in a manager and subordinate performance, such as anger, environmental factors, and unfamiliarity of situations, all of which impact decision making.
He leaves subordinates completely in the dark, with only an occasional hint or a guess as to how they're performing.
They were subordinate to HMI's bank obligations, but not to any other creditors.
If, for example, the executive pairs the phrase, "We had a good, aggressive management team at my old company," with an enthusiastic tone of voice, she has increased enormously the probability that the subordinate will try to pair himself with aggressive traits in his own behavior, whether he is truly aggressive or not.