subsistence economy


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subsistence economy

or

subsistence society

a society which is seen as producing enough for survival without any economic surplus. This is a commonly used term to describe simple societies such as TRIBES or HUNTER-GATHERERS, but problematic. Most societies produce beyond immediate needs, and in the past anthropologists tended to underestimate the extent to which contact between societies gave rise to trade. If these qualifications are held in mind it is a usable concept to refer to societies whose members may limit their surplus production, or for whom market transactions are of secondary consideration, and if it is recognized that there are problems in defining ‘needs’ and 'survival’. See also ECONOMIC SURPLUS, NATURAL ECONOMY.
References in periodicals archive ?
For years, a key source of income in the rural and Alaska Native subsistence economy has been the sale of artistic treasures that celebrate the cultural heritage of Alaskas First People, said Senator Sullivan.
REMEMBER: Bhutan is a subsistence economy - we do not have the financial wherewithal to squander way hundreds of millions in unjustified quota gifts; It is not fair that a motley of individuals are segregated to receive preferential treatment while the majority of the population are required to pay for their quota benefits; The quota system perpetuates immorality/ lawlessness among the supposedly civil/public servants.
For more than a year she explored Sicily, puzzling over the contrast between a region, once the most envied outpost of Greater Greece but now a wretched subsistence economy limited to agriculture and construction, one of the poorest regions of Italy with a permanent unemployment rate of 25 per cent, rising to 35 per cent of young people, unthinkable in the developed world outside crisis situations.
Although South Sudan has vast and largely untapped natural resources, beyond a few oil enclaves, it remains relatively undeveloped, characterized by a subsistence economy. South Sudan is the most oil-dependent country in the world, with oil accounting for almost the totality of exports, and around 60% of its gross domestic product.
However, when changes to the (non-cash) subsistence economy are taken into account, a more complex picture of both positive and negative economic effects emerges.
Describing the historical passage of rural life from pre-colonial times to the present, it shows how the rural economy of the Punjab was not transformed by the green revolution - on the contrary, it is still a subsistence economy. The resulting poverty combined with Pakistan's labour-market policies forces many Punjabi men to seek work abroad, in turn bringing changes to the economic role of the women left behind.
In order to reduce the impact of falling commodi- ties prices, a sector-by-sector policy must be put in place in order to speed up the transition from a subsistence economy to a productive economy.
In order to reduce the impact of falling commodities prices, a sector-by-sector policy must be put in place in order to speed up the transition from a subsistence economy to a productive economy.
Eva FernEaAindez, first author of the article who got her PhD from UB, explains that "the Neolithic Revolution rapidly expanded from these territories into Europe, where the hunter-gatherer subsistence economy -- prevailing till then -- was replaced by an agropastoral producing system." To know the nature of the diffusion of the Neolithic -- in other words, to know if it was a population migration process or a cultural adoption -- has been widely debated for the last fifty years.
There is now a state of 'dualism': the market sector and the traditional subsistence economy. (In Samoa two-thirds of the potential labour force is absorbed by village agriculture; only 12 per cent of the population is engaged in formal paid employment.)
Historically, a largely agrarian subsistence economy depended on large and strong families.
While understanding poverty, we have to differentiate between frugality as in subsistence economies and destitution, which can arise when subsistence economy fails.