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Any layer underlying the true soil.



remnants of an ethnic group’s former native language that have been retained in the language replacing the first, original language. The term also designates the original language itself, for example, the Celtic substratum in French, the Dacian substratum in Rumanian, the pre-Indo-European substratum—Hurrian-Urartaean—in Armenian, and the Iranian substratum in some Uzbek dialects.

The influence of the substratum may be observed at both the phonetic and phonological levels, in changes in articulation and in the modification of distinctive features. In grammar, it may be observed in functional changes in the original grammatical forms and in loan translations of syntactic constructions; in the lexicon, it is manifested by borrowings and caiques.

References in periodicals archive ?
Seven individuals were found in three deployed lines of pike-perch artificial spawning substrata at the northern coast of Parnu Bay (NE Gulf of Riga) (Fig.
From the tested substrata, ten bacterial strains were isolated and were subjected to gram's staining, motility test as well as series of biochemical and physiological tests for species level identification (Table 2).
These substrata are defined only for the purpose of sample selection.
Although cell response to micrometer topography and in particular surface microgrooves has been reported, studies have often been limited to using stochastically patterned substrata and covering only a small range of microgroove geometrical values and the influence of this interesting microgeometry on the main osteoblast specific transcription factor Cbfa1 has been ignored.
The acid peat in mixture with MEA reduced substrata pH to neutral or weak alkaline (pH 7.
This distribution extremely homogeneous of periphyton and its interaction with natural substrata, coupled to the need to standardize the community development time and the substratum nature, have motivated the use of artificial substrata.
Next, I tell them that I would like to subdivide the three categories into six substrata in order to give us more flexibility for the activity and to reflect better how we label people in our society.
Settlement on optimal substrata by larvae enhances their survival by enabling the settled individuals to obtain adequate food and shelter from predators and physical disturbances.
Having completed the substrata, Kemtile installed 200 square metres of Kagetec GFK ceramic flooring system using Amsterdam R11 slip resistant hexagonal tiles.
On this new disc the 56-year-old Mellencamp digs into the substrata of rock foundations--Appalachian ballads and Delta blues--to express some universal sentiments and ask some big questions.
We defined these habitats using the different categories of substrata and standard geological definitions defined by Yoklavich et al.