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Any layer underlying the true soil.



remnants of an ethnic group’s former native language that have been retained in the language replacing the first, original language. The term also designates the original language itself, for example, the Celtic substratum in French, the Dacian substratum in Rumanian, the pre-Indo-European substratum—Hurrian-Urartaean—in Armenian, and the Iranian substratum in some Uzbek dialects.

The influence of the substratum may be observed at both the phonetic and phonological levels, in changes in articulation and in the modification of distinctive features. In grammar, it may be observed in functional changes in the original grammatical forms and in loan translations of syntactic constructions; in the lexicon, it is manifested by borrowings and caiques.

References in periodicals archive ?
To counter degenerating reefs, restoration efforts recycle empty oyster shells, or "cultch," to build near-natural substrata to which live oysters might attach and grow (Coen et al.
1-3) in the attachment organs of nine species of cirripede cyprids representing a wide range of substrata and habitats: 1) shape of the attachment disc (ratio of short to long axis), 2) angle to the substratum, and 3) density of cuticular villi on the disc surface Factor Kruskal-Wallis test/ANOVA Ratio of short to long axis H = 45.
In this article, we document 1) species of overall fish communities on shelf-depth artificial (shipwrecks) substrata and natural hard substrata and nearby soft-bottom habitats, 2) relative abundance of fish species in those communities, and 3) behaviors and distributions of fishes on shipwreck and nonshipwreck open bottom for 2 seasons (fall in 2012 and spring in 2013).
The objective of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of five different methods of germination incorporating different substrata.
Although the species may have been present in Parnu Bay prior to 2011, we consider its occurrence in high abundances very unlikely because artificial spawning substrata have been provided to pike-perch in the same area annually since the end of the 1980s and high-frequency (i.
Microtextured substrates (five substrata per type) were placed in 24-well plates.
The acidity of substrata influenced on viability and biodegradable activity of microorganisms.
These substrata are defined only for the purpose of sample selection.
Therefore, we analyzed (a) the floristic composition from the community of periphytic algae in both substrata of one tributary of Rosana reservoir, Corvo Stream, during a warm and rainy period; (b) the algae similarity, between artificial and natural substratum; and (c) the principal abiotic factors influencing the species composition and richness of phycoperiphytic community, in both substrata.
Results demonstrated that; firstly, trigeminal ganglia were capable of extending neurites in isolation, Secondly, poly-d-lysine promoted extensive outgrowth of neurites, a comparable outgrowth was promoted by collagen substrata but not three- dimensional collagen gels.
The names for the lower of the upper class substrata (E) have been rich, upper class, and lower upper class; for the higher substratum (F), they have been wealthy, elite, superrich, ruling class, and upper upper class.
Rozik (theater studies, Tel Aviv University) has developed a semiotic performance analysis that takes into account the variety of ways in which the same play can be presented, treating each performance as a unique event with its own semiotic substrata.