substrate


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substrate

1. Biochem the substance upon which an enzyme acts
2. Electronics the semiconductor base on which other material is deposited, esp in the construction of integrated circuits

Substrate

 

(1) In biology, the base—an object or substance—to which sedentary animals and plants, including microorganisms, are attached.

(2) In biochemistry, a substance acted upon by enzymes. The term “substrate” refers to the primary and intermediate products of metabolism (metabolites) that take part in enzymatic transformations. Chemically, substrates may vary from simple molecules of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to highly complex molecules of proteins and nucleic acids.

During an enzymatic reaction, the substrate is activated and combines with the enzyme to form an enzyme-substrate complex, which decomposes and releases the products of the reaction. As a rule, a given enzyme activates only few substrates, a phenomenon called substrative specificity. Consequently, the name of a substrate is often the source for the name of the corresponding enzyme. For example, the enzyme that splits D-glucose-1-phosphate into glucose and phosphate is called D-glucose-1-phosphatase.

The substrative specificity of enzymes is determined by the structure of their active centers; substrates can directly affect the formation of these centers. The concentration of substrates is a factor in the regulation of enzymatic activity. Substrates and their analogues—substances similar in structure to the substrates —often induce the biosynthesis of the corresponding enzymes. Some analogues of substrates are specific inhibitors of enzymes.

(3) In microbiology, nutrient media for the growth of microorganisms.

N. N. CHERNOV

substrate

[′səb‚strāt]
(biochemistry)
The substance with which an enzyme reacts.
(ecology)
The foundation to which a sessile organism is attached.
(electronics)
The physical material on which a microcircuit is fabricated; used primarily for mechanical support and insulating purposes, as with ceramic, plastic, and glass substrates; however, semiconductor and ferrite substrates may also provide useful electrical functions.
(engineering)
Basic surface on which a material adheres, for example, paint or laminate.
(organic chemistry)
A compound with which a reagent reacts.

substrate

1. The underlying material to which a finish is applied, or by which it is supported.
2. A material upon which an adhesive, film, coating, etc., is applied.

substrate

(hardware)
The body or base layer of an integrated circuit, onto which other layers are deposited to form the circuit. The substrate is usually Silicon, though Sapphire is used for certain applications, particularly military, where radiation resistance is important. The substrate is originally part of the wafer from which the die is cut. It is used as the electrical ground for the circuit.

substrate

The base layer of a structure such as a chip, multichip module (MCM), printed circuit board or disk platter. Silicon is the most widely used substrate for chips. Fiberglass (FR4) is mostly used for printed circuit boards, and ceramic is used for MCMs. Disk substrates are typically aluminum, glass or plastic.
References in periodicals archive ?
Several substrate suppliers have organic interposer capabilities in development, including Ibiden, Kinsus, Kyocera, NTK, Samsung Electro-Mechanics (SEMCO), Shinko Electric and Unimicron.
Although concrete is a porous substrate, penetration is dependent upon its composition, where pore size may limit or prohibit adhesion.
The substrate must be able to support HDI, which is essential to minimizing size and weight and maximizing performance.
Our work on substrate formulations has focused on two basal materials: commercial grain spawn and grain/oilseed spawn (prepared on-site), and we have determined several factors that significantly influence mushroom yield.
Substrates such as these may come in temporary or prolonged contact with human tissues, and could otherwise be compromised.
4] production increased significantly because of the influx of electron donors in the 2-CP-amended reactor but leveled off in the no-substrate control as endogenous substrates in the sediment were depleted (Figure 5C).
Manufacturers use an object similar to a paint roller with a velvet cloth attached, which is run across the surface of a substrate.
The type and thickness of substrate present in a product and its location--above or below the medium--is a significant factor in the performance of the product, too.
May we assume, therefore, that chicken cell substrate vaccines are safe?
Normally, wave characteristics such as frequency, amplitude and velocity would remain constant as the electrode-generated sound waves traveled from one end of the substrate to another.
The newly allowed claims reinforce Dicerna's unparalleled intellectual property position in the field of Dicer substrate therapeutics and further support the company's commitment to developing a new class of oncology treatments using its Dicer Substrate Technology[TM] platform.