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Any layer underlying the true soil.



remnants of an ethnic group’s former native language that have been retained in the language replacing the first, original language. The term also designates the original language itself, for example, the Celtic substratum in French, the Dacian substratum in Rumanian, the pre-Indo-European substratum—Hurrian-Urartaean—in Armenian, and the Iranian substratum in some Uzbek dialects.

The influence of the substratum may be observed at both the phonetic and phonological levels, in changes in articulation and in the modification of distinctive features. In grammar, it may be observed in functional changes in the original grammatical forms and in loan translations of syntactic constructions; in the lexicon, it is manifested by borrowings and caiques.

References in periodicals archive ?
1 Gonatozygon pilosum Wolle * Desmidiaceae unidentified * taxa exclusive to artificial substratum; ** taxa exclusive to natural substratum.
Neurites were neither strongly adhered to the tissue culture substratum nor adjacent neurites.
The names for the lower of the upper class substrata (E) have been rich, upper class, and lower upper class; for the higher substratum (F), they have been wealthy, elite, superrich, ruling class, and upper upper class.
According to Rajarathnam and Bano (1989) there is a reduction of substratum degradation when N is excessively added.
Indeed, the question of substratum theory versus bundle theory continues
3] small-size plastic tubes, with pinus bark and vermiculite-like substratum base (Plantmax[R]).
A possible explanation for large values of microhardness obtained through PVD--magnetron-sputtering method is due to the big compressible tensions induced between the substratum and plasma.
To obtain pheromone samples, silk was collected by housing females in a standard glass Petri dish with a filter paper substratum for 24 hr.
If we take away the useful labour expended upon them, a material substratum is always left, which is furnished by Nature without the help of man.
Myths also 'form a deep substratum to knowledge held in common'.
Ruff's most recent project is Substratum, a development of his internet research which expresses his idea that on-line virtual images no longer depict reality but only offer visual stimulation by electronic means through the use of colours, shapes and forms .