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Any layer underlying the true soil.



remnants of an ethnic group’s former native language that have been retained in the language replacing the first, original language. The term also designates the original language itself, for example, the Celtic substratum in French, the Dacian substratum in Rumanian, the pre-Indo-European substratum—Hurrian-Urartaean—in Armenian, and the Iranian substratum in some Uzbek dialects.

The influence of the substratum may be observed at both the phonetic and phonological levels, in changes in articulation and in the modification of distinctive features. In grammar, it may be observed in functional changes in the original grammatical forms and in loan translations of syntactic constructions; in the lexicon, it is manifested by borrowings and caiques.

References in periodicals archive ?
A key focus is how to maintain walkways and how the BSC can help reduce walkway risk," said David Collette, president Substratum.
Based on the analysis conducted, the following conclusions may be drawn that macro and micro synthetic fibres at the surface of concrete inhibit a strong and durable bond between the coating and the substratum, accelerating cracking and the eventual breakdown of the coating.
Such substratum may also provide a suitable habitat for the Harris mud crab and, therefore, may provide occurrence information on the species.
He said that Iqbal's idea of free will, equated with Khudi, amd talem as a substratum for evolutionary epistemology is already making inroads into the modern Muslim scholarship.
A competing proposal relates it to the Balkan areal phenomena, deriving the Romanian particle and its equivalents in Albanian and New Greek from a substratum source (Rosetti et al.
Considering the above importance, the present study was undertaken to determine the substratum wise influence on settlement of biofilm bacteria of Chinnamuttom fisheries harbour, Southeast coast of Tamilnadu, India and also to assess the antifouling efficacy of secondary metabolites from seaweed Sargassum wightii.
The systematic sample with probability proportional to size design described above is applied independently in each substratum.
This, observes Boi (Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Centre de Mathematiques, France), makes the quantum vacuum the "immaterial substratum of all physical existence.
Hence the substratum of the prosecution's case is fatally demolished, rendering any appeal, no matter how many times, a desperate act of futility," he added.
Third, Gross appears to have identified a substratum within the Aramaic tradition.
DNA microarrays have tentatively identified protein activations in osteoblasts that may result from alterations in the features of the substratum topography to which the cell is adhered.