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Any layer underlying the true soil.



remnants of an ethnic group’s former native language that have been retained in the language replacing the first, original language. The term also designates the original language itself, for example, the Celtic substratum in French, the Dacian substratum in Rumanian, the pre-Indo-European substratum—Hurrian-Urartaean—in Armenian, and the Iranian substratum in some Uzbek dialects.

The influence of the substratum may be observed at both the phonetic and phonological levels, in changes in articulation and in the modification of distinctive features. In grammar, it may be observed in functional changes in the original grammatical forms and in loan translations of syntactic constructions; in the lexicon, it is manifested by borrowings and caiques.

References in periodicals archive ?
We suppose that the deformaton of the [OMEGA](1) substratum under consideration is small.
When the [OMEGA](1) substratum is subjected to a set of external forces, the relative positions of the [OMEGA](1) particles form the body displacement.
3]} which is static relative to the [OMEGA](1) substratum.
When the [OMEGA](1) substratum deforms, the internal forces arise due to the deformation.
Inspired by these contributors, we propose a visco-elastic constitutive relation of the [OMEGA](1) substratum.
It is natural to say that the constitutive relation of the [OMEGA](1) substratum may be a combination of the constitutive relations of the Hooke-solid and the Newtonian-fluid.
The [OMEGA](1) substratum behaves like the Hooke-solid during very short duration.