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Any layer underlying the true soil.



remnants of an ethnic group’s former native language that have been retained in the language replacing the first, original language. The term also designates the original language itself, for example, the Celtic substratum in French, the Dacian substratum in Rumanian, the pre-Indo-European substratum—Hurrian-Urartaean—in Armenian, and the Iranian substratum in some Uzbek dialects.

The influence of the substratum may be observed at both the phonetic and phonological levels, in changes in articulation and in the modification of distinctive features. In grammar, it may be observed in functional changes in the original grammatical forms and in loan translations of syntactic constructions; in the lexicon, it is manifested by borrowings and caiques.

References in periodicals archive ?
Suppose the constitutive relation of the [OMEGA](1) substratum satisfies Eq.
Let T be a characteristic time scale of an observer of the [OMEGA](1) substratum. When the observer's time scale T is of the same order that the period of the wave motion of light, the Maxwellian relaxation time [tau] is a comparigly large number.
where [f.sub.x], [f.sub.y] and [f.sub.z] are three components of the volume force density f exerted on the [OMEGA](1) substratum.
When no body force in the [OMEGA](1) substratum, Eqs.
Let T be the characteristic time of a observer of an electric charge in the [OMEGA](1) substratum. We may suppose that the observer's time scale T is very large to the Maxwellian relaxation time [tau].
The observer therefore concludes that the [OMEGA](1) substratum behaves like a Newtonian-fluid on his time scale.
Suppose that all the electric charges in the Universe are the sources or sinks in the [OMEGA](1) substratum. We define such a source as a negative electric charge.
where [rho] is the density of the [OMEGA](1) substratum, Q is called the strength of the source or sink, [k.sub.Q] is a positive dimensionless constant.
Now, let us deduce the continuity equation of the [OMEGA](1) substratum from the mass conservation.