hysterectomy

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hysterectomy

(hĭstərĕk`təmē), surgical removal of the uterusuterus,
in most female mammals, hollow muscular organ in which the fetus develops and from which it is delivered at the end of pregnancy. The human uterus is pear-shaped and about 3 in. (7.
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. A hysterectomy may involve removal of the uterus only or additional removal of the cervix (base of the uterus), fallopian tubesfallopian tube
, either of a pair of tubes extending from the uterus to the paired ovaries in the human female, also called oviducts, technically known as the uterine tube.
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 (salpingectomy), and ovariesovary,
ductless gland of the female in which the ova (female reproductive cells) are produced. In vertebrate animals the ovary also secretes the sex hormones estrogen and progesterone, which control the development of the sexual organs and the secondary sexual characteristics.
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 (oophorectomy). It may be performed through a conventional abdominal incision or through the vagina. It is performed in cases of malignant tumors, endometriosis, prolapsed uterus, or fibroids that cause bleeding and pain. An emergency hysterectomy is sometimes necessary to end uterine hemorrhaging.

Removal does not physically interfere with sexual activity, but it does eliminate the uterine contractions of orgasm. It also eliminates the possibility of childbearing and precipitates menopausemenopause
or climacteric
, transitional phase in a woman's life when the ovaries stop releasing eggs, ovarian production of estrogen and other hormones tapers off, and menstruation ceases.
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 in premenopausal women. Surgical removal of the ovaries eliminates their production of estrogenestrogen
, any one of a group of hormones synthesized by the reproductive organs and adrenal glands in females and, in lesser quantities, in males. The estrogens cause the thickening of the lining of the uterus and vagina in the early phase of the ovulatory, or menstrual, cycle
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 and progesteroneprogesterone
, female sex hormone that induces secretory changes in the lining of the uterus essential for successful implantation of a fertilized egg. A steroid, progesterone is secreted chiefly by the corpus luteum, a group of cells formed in the ovary after the follicle
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 along with these hormones's protective benefits to the heart, bones, and skin.

Some women's health advocates have questioned what they feel is the overuse of hysterectomy in the United States, where it is the second most common surgical procedure. Some studies have judged that up to 25% of hysterectomies performed in the United States are unnecessary and that more conservative treatments (laparoscopic surgery, hormone therapy, or simple removal of fibroids) would suffice in these cases.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/

hysterectomy

[‚his·tə′rek·tə·mē]
(medicine)
Surgical removal of all or part of the uterus.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

hysterectomy

surgical removal of the uterus
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
The psychosocial outcomes of total and subtotal hysterectomy: A randomized controlled trial.
Out of 6 cases of EPH, subtotal hysterectomy was performed in 5 and total hysterectomy in only one case.
* Doctors who perform CS need to know the medical treatment of uterine atony and be able to perform additional surgical procedures for arresting haemorrhage and preferably subtotal hysterectomy.
In this study, 63% of the women had undergone total or subtotal hysterectomy alone, while 9% had undergone hysterectomy with unilateral oophorectomy, and 28% had undergone hysterectomy with bilateral oophorectomy.
In the first survey of its kind in the US, gynecologists were asked whether they counseled women undergoing a hysterectomy on the advantages and disadvantages of both a total or subtotal hysterectomy. A shocking 63% of doctors admitted that they rarely or never offer women this information.
Women who have had a subtotal hysterectomy should continue screening until at least age 70.
The surgery done entailed drainage of the pelvic abscesses, separation of the adhered uterine wall serosa from small bowel, and a subtotal hysterectomy. Peritoneal lavage was done with around 10 liters of 0.9% sodium chloride solution.
Of the total number of patients 80% underwent total hysterectomy, while in 20% cases subtotal hysterectomy was performed in our study.
There are also some data indicating similar sexual function in women with and without cervical ablation(16,17), and studies also showed similar sexual function among different hysterectomy techniques including total abdominal hysterectomy, subtotal hysterectomy, and vaginal hysterectomy(18).
Her records indicated that 5 years ago she underwent a laparoscopic subtotal hysterectomy due to leiomyomata in other hospital.