subtractive synthesis


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subtractive synthesis

[səb‚trak·tiv ′sin·thə·səs]
(engineering acoustics)
A method of synthesizing musical tones, in which an electronic circuit produces a standard waveform (such as a sawtooth wave), which contains a very large number of harmonics at known relative amplitudes, and this circuit is followed by a variety of electric or electronic filters to convert the basic tone signals into the desired musical waveforms.
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The procedural version of the swoosh sound of the swinging sword was implemented by a combination of two granular synthesis modules and a subtractive synthesis module (see Figure 4).
Subtractive synthesis is a simple and CPU-friendly synthesis technique, which can be used to generate highly dynamic and responsive aerodynamic sounds.
The reason for combining subtractive synthesis with granular synthesis was the fact that granular synthesis contains many rich details because it is a sample-based synthesis technique.
The combination of granular synthesis and subtractive synthesis in various sound models can be found at http://www .jenkamusic.dk/niels/PhD/videos.html.
In this paper it will be referred to as procedural sound as the technique is mixed with subtractive synthesis.
This standard defines colour combinations for subtractive synthesis and is not optimised for any printing process in particular but is robust enough for all general uses like classic offset CMYK print.
For objective evaluation of print quality, ANSI values were measured on samples of different combinations of colour values for subtractive synthesis. Obtained information is converted by computer for the construction of 3D cubic colour units.
For testing, two test forms of which the first is made so that in the background there are 4 different colours: cyan, yellow, magenta and black, in the value of 100%, where the first three represent the basic colours of subtractive synthesis and also 4 primary colours that are used in the classical offset printing.
The module entitled "Sound Synthesis" contains tracks about additive synthesis, subtractive synthesis, non-linear synthesis, and, curiously, a history of computer music.
Changes that occur with editing of portrait photographs are however higher for some primary colours of additive and subtractive synthesis (Table 4), especially at high ISO speed (most for the C, R, G and B at photographs taken with ISO 3200/36 and what is highest for R where is the colour difference between shot and edited photographs higher from the border acceptability ([DELTA][E.sub.00] = 6).
For shot photograph L, a and b values for standard skin colours and primary colours of additive and subtractive synthesis were determined by using Adobe Photoshop CS3 and colour differences ([DELTA][E.sub.00]) in relation to the motif (standard) were determined and CIE chromaticity diagrams were made (Luo et al., 2001).
Printing with sublimation and digital laser photographic printer gives real tone picture with the subtractive synthesis (cyan, magenta, yellow).