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a grant, aid, or subsidy, as from a government to an educational institution
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(Russian, subsidiia), a benefit, primarily in monetary form, granted by the state out of the state budget to local bodies of power, natural and juridical persons, and other states.

Subventions may be direct or indirect. In precapitalist formations, a subvention was primarily a form of financial aid to military allies. In the early stages of capitalism, the bourgeois state made broad use of direct subventions for the encouragement of national industry and the financing of military expenditures. Under imperialism, especially during the period of the general crisis of capitalism, various forms of indirect subvention have been the rule. Indirect subventions include the sale of nationalized enterprises to monopolies at artificially low prices, the acquisition of the output of monopolized enterprises (chiefly those in the military-industrial complex) at inflated prices, government purchase of the shares and unsold goods of bankrupt companies, tax privileges for the monopolies, and state guarantees and insurance of deposits and export credits.

Since World War II, subventions—in the form of “aid” to foreign countries—have been made on a large scale, primarily in order to prop up puppet regimes. They are used to restore the solvency of particular companies or whole branches of the economy, to stimulate the growth of capital-intensive industries, and to encourage the monopolies to expand foreign trade. Indirect subventions are paid out primarily through the mechanism of credit privileges, tax privileges, and high or low monopolistically set prices. Subvention in the capitalist countries is dictated by considerations of class and is subject to the interests of monopoly capital. The subventions paid out of the state budget place an added burden on the bulk of the taxpayers—the working people.

The socialist countries make no use of subventions.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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References in periodicals archive ?
L'APN accorde depuis 2013 des subventions pour soutenir les travaux des chercheurs africains afin de favoriser la publication d'etudes pertinentes sur la consolidation de la paix.
En remettant les subventions a nos organismes communautaires en temps opportun et de maniere efficace, nous les aiderons a planifier et a realiser des projets qui ameliorent la vie de tous les Albertains et de toutes les Albertaines.
Premiere echeance, le collectif souhaite entre autres que d'ici fin juillet 2018, que les responsables etatiques trouvent une solution aux delais courts et revise les conditions de l'appel a projet pour la subvention du fonds de cohesion sociale, de meme que le cahier des charges.
Dans ce sens, le ministUuA re fait savoir que le soutien des produits Uu[c]nergUu[c]tiques (Uu[c]lectricitUu[c], gaz, carburants...) "absorbe 60% des ressources consacrUu[c]es par les pouvoirs publics aux subventions qui ne passent pas par le budget de lae1/4aoEtat, alors mUuo"me que ce sont les catUu[c]gories les plus favorisUu[c]es qui en profitent le plus".
S'exprimant a l'occasion, la secretaire generale du departement de la peche maritime au ministere de l'Agriculture et de la Peche maritime, Zakia Driouch, a souligne que cette subvention ambitionne de donner un nouveau depart au programme "Ibhar".
This is the fifth public call in a row and thus far 1 901 households have been given subventions and around 450 000 euro have been allocated from the budget for this purpose.
dc nombrcux prix d'excellence et de nombreuscs bourses et subventions sont offerts aux membres de 1'ACITN.
Intense lobbying by agricultural and other groups has opened up the possibility that subventions could be restored in the 2010-11 state budget as a temporary measure, pending agreement on a permanent way to fund the program that does not rely on the state's general fund.
Can the Government order the private wineries to buy grapes at a higher price and what is the aim of the huge subventions for farmers, he asks.
Le ministere des Finances a apporte dimanche des clarifications sur la politique des subventions en soulignant que "s'il y a necessite de revoir les dispositifs de soutien actuels, la revision ne sera pas precipitee et ne sera pas appliquee de maniere systematique et indiscriminee".