succinic acid


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succinic acid:

see Krebs cycleKrebs cycle,
series of chemical reactions carried out in the living cell; in most higher animals, including humans, it is essential for the oxidative metabolism of glucose and other simple sugars.
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Succinic Acid

 

HOOCCH2CH2 COOH. Also known as butanedioic acid, succinic acid is a colorless, crystalline compound that is soluble in ethanol, ether, and water.

Succinic acid has a melting point of 185°C and a density of 1.563 g/cm3 at 20°C. It is found in small amounts in brown coal, amber, plants, and animals; it is an intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle.

Succinic acid is produced industrially mainly by the hydrogenation of maleic anhydride. The acid itself and a number of its derivatives—including its anhydride, monoamides, diamides, and esters and salts (succinates), as well as succinimide—are used in the production of various plastics, polyester resins, dyes, insecticides, and pharmaceuticals; they are also used in the synthesis of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons.

succinic acid

[sək′sin·ik ′as·əd]
(organic chemistry)
CO2H(CH2)2CO2H Water-soluble, colorless crystals with an acid taste; melts at 185°C; used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, and to make perfume esters.
References in periodicals archive ?
In January 2010, Bioamber announced the successful start-up and commissioning of its 2000 tonne demonstration plant for production of renewable succinic acid from wheat-derived glucose.
China is the major consumption country for succinic acid, with total apparent consumption volume of 7,393 tonnes in 2009.
According to report on "2018-2023 Bio-Succinic Acid Market Global Key Player, Demand, Growth, Opportunities and Analysis Forecast" by Wise Guy Reports.com the Bio Succinic Acid Market is expected to grow at CAGR of 23.2% from 2018 to 2023.
The concentrations of the acids were 0.1356, 0.0678 and 0.0452 M for monocarboxylic acids (acetic acid), dicarboxylic acids (malic, tartaric, malonic, oxalic and succinic acids) and tricarboxylic acids (citric acid), respectively.
Succinic acid ([C.sub.4][H.sub.6][O.sub.4], minimum purity of 99.0 wt%, [M.sub.w] = 118.09 g [mol.sup.-1]), ethylene glycol ([C.sub.2][H.sub.6][O.sub.2].
In the relevant research, it was determined that the citric acid and succinic acid following the malic acid were higher compared to other acids.
Effect of Succinic Acid. Very small amounts of succinic was added to the reaction media to inhibit emulsification particularly in the case of [Cd.sup.2+], [Cu.sup.2+], and [Cr.sup.3+] transition metal cations.
Pan (2007) purified ten organic acids, including citric acid, malic acid, oxalic acid, glycolic acid, succinic acid, lactic acid, pyroglutamic acid, formic acid, acetic acid, and propionic acid from this fruit.
These nanoparticles were attached to cotton fabric using a cross linking agent succinic acid. Samples were washed at three different temperatures (30, 60 and 90AdegC), with and without detergent and for different number of cycles to test the durability of nanoparticles to the fabric.
The dyed trunk segments were cut longitudinally to view the continuous conducting vessels based on the accumulation of succinic acid stain in the grafting union region.
Succinic acid (SA) is a product of the metabolism of plants and micro-organisms (WANG et al., 2011) and lias shown biological activities, such as anxiolytic (CHEN, 2003; VOLCHEGORSKII et al., 2015), and the induction for IL-8 production in inflammatoiy processes (GRAHAM et.