sucrose


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sucrose

(so͞o`krōs), commonest of the sugars, a white, crystalline solid disaccharide (see carbohydratecarbohydrate,
any member of a large class of chemical compounds that includes sugars, starches, cellulose, and related compounds. These compounds are produced naturally by green plants from carbon dioxide and water (see photosynthesis).
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) with a sweet taste, melting and decomposing at 186°C; to form caramel. It is known commonly as cane sugar, beet sugar, or maple sugar, depending upon its natural source. It has the same empirical formula (C12H22O11) as lactose and maltose but differs from both in structure (see isomerisomer
, in chemistry, one of two or more compounds having the same molecular formula but different structures (arrangements of atoms in the molecule). Isomerism is the occurrence of such compounds. Isomerism was first recognized by J. J. Berzelius in 1827.
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). Hydrolysis of sucrose yields D-glucose and D-fructose; the process is called inversion and the sugar mixture produced is known as invert sugar because, although sucrose itself rotates plane-polarized light to the right, the mixture "inverts" this light by rotating it to the left. Sucrose is obtained from the "juice" of sugarcane or the sugar beet and from the sap of the sugar maple. The cane or beets are crushed, and the juice, after treatment with lime to neutralize acids, is evaporated in vacuum pans that permit the process to be carried out at relatively low temperatures. The brownish liquid obtained, called molasses, evaporates further, leaving the sugar, brownish in color, which is dissolved in water, treated with animal charcoal to remove the color resulting from the presence of impurities, and recrystallized.
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Sucrose

An oligosaccharide, α- d -glucopyranosyl-β- d -fructofuranoside, also known as saccharose, cane sugar, or beet sugar. The structure is shown below.

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Sucrose is very soluble in water and crystallizes from the medium in the anhydrous form. The sugar occurs universally throughout the plant kingdom in fruits, seeds, flowers, and roots of plants. Honey consists principally of sucrose and its hydrolysis products. Sugarcane and sugarbeets are the chief sources for the preparation of sucrose on a large scale. Another source of commercial interest is the sap of maple trees. See Oligosaccharide

McGraw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of Bioscience. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Sucrose

 

(also saccharose), one of the most important disac-charides. Sucrose, which is present in all photosynthesizing plants, forms colorless crystals that dissolve readily in water and melt at 185°–186°C. It is easily hydrolyzed to yield glucose and fructose by the action of acids or the enzyme invertase.

Sucrose is one of the most easily digested and transportable forms of carbohydrates in plants. Carbohydrates formed in photosynthesis are transferred in the form of sucrose from the leaves to seeds, roots, tubers, and bulbs, where the sucrose is easily converted into starch or inulin.

Sucrose was produced even in ancient India, China, and Egypt by separating it from the sap of sugarcane. Currently the major source of sucrose in countries of the temperate zone is the sugar beet. Sucrose is used widely in the food and microbiological industries. The fermentation of sucrose by various microorganisms yields ethyl alcohol, and other alcohols, acetone, acetic acid, lactic acid, and other products are obtained as well. Sucrose is commonly called sugar.

REFERENCCE

Kretovich, V. L. Osnovy biokhimii rastenii, 5th ed. Moscow, 1971.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

sucrose

[′sü‚krōs]
(organic chemistry)
C12H22O11 Combustible, white crystals soluble in water, decomposes at 160 to 186°C; derived from sugarcane or sugarbeet; used as a sweetener in drinks and foods and to make syrups, preserves, and jams. Also known as saccharose; table sugar.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Sucrose solution significantly reduces crying time compared with placebo
Figure 3 indicates that the change trend of polarization is consistent with the change trend of sucrose content in juice, which shows a strong correlation between them.
The lowest contents were verified for treatments submitted to osmotic dehydration in 60% sucrose solution with and without the addition of calcium chloride (T1 and T2).
Although survival rates for 30% and 50% sucrose were not significantly different, the 30% diet exhibited higher mean daily survival values with lower standard deviations (Fig.
After 120d, explants with up to two leaflets that were 1.0[+ or -]0.2cm in length were assigned to one of the 12 treatments: fructose (0, 15, 30, or 45g [L.sup.-1]), glucose (0, 15, 30, or 45g [L.sup.-1]), or sucrose (0, 15, 30, or 45g [L.sup.-1]) in 1/2 MS culture medium.
Sweet sorghum and sugarcanes may vary in respect of high levels of sucrose in their stems.
The objective of this paper is to develop a new method for the determination of sucrose by spectrophotometer.
Explants were placed on modify MS medium [10] supplemented with 20-60 g/l sucrose without plant growth regulators, on modify MS media with 16.50, 8.25 and 4.12 g/l amonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and full- strength of MS media supplemented with 1.0 and 2.0 mg/l BAP (6-benzyloaminopurine), KIN (kinetin) and 2iP (2-isopentenyladenine) with normal concentration of sugar (30 g/l of sucrose).
In this sense, the aim of this study was to evaluate the production of nystose by Bacillus subtilis natto CCT 7712 using low-cost substrates such as commercial sucrose, sugarcane molasses and sugarcane juice.
Their experiment, conducted on longdistance cyclists, showed that consuming sugars in the form of either glucose or sucrose can achieve this, but sucrose is better.
"We found that sucrose intake in mice comparable to levels of Western diets led to increased tumor growth and metastasis, when compared to a non-sugar starch diet," said Peiying Yang, Ph.D., assistant professor of Palliative, Rehabilitation, and Integrative Medicine.