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sucrose(so͞o`krōs), commonest of the sugars, a white, crystalline solid disaccharide (see carbohydratecarbohydrate,
any member of a large class of chemical compounds that includes sugars, starches, cellulose, and related compounds. These compounds are produced naturally by green plants from carbon dioxide and water (see photosynthesis).
..... Click the link for more information. ) with a sweet taste, melting and decomposing at 186°C; to form caramel. It is known commonly as cane sugar, beet sugar, or maple sugar, depending upon its natural source. It has the same empirical formula (C12H22O11) as lactose and maltose but differs from both in structure (see isomerisomer
, in chemistry, one of two or more compounds having the same molecular formula but different structures (arrangements of atoms in the molecule). Isomerism is the occurrence of such compounds. Isomerism was first recognized by J. J. Berzelius in 1827.
..... Click the link for more information. ). Hydrolysis of sucrose yields D-glucose and D-fructose; the process is called inversion and the sugar mixture produced is known as invert sugar because, although sucrose itself rotates plane-polarized light to the right, the mixture "inverts" this light by rotating it to the left. Sucrose is obtained from the "juice" of sugarcane or the sugar beet and from the sap of the sugar maple. The cane or beets are crushed, and the juice, after treatment with lime to neutralize acids, is evaporated in vacuum pans that permit the process to be carried out at relatively low temperatures. The brownish liquid obtained, called molasses, evaporates further, leaving the sugar, brownish in color, which is dissolved in water, treated with animal charcoal to remove the color resulting from the presence of impurities, and recrystallized.
An oligosaccharide, α- d -glucopyranosyl-β- d -fructofuranoside, also known as saccharose, cane sugar, or beet sugar. The structure is shown below.Sucrose is very soluble in water and crystallizes from the medium in the anhydrous form. The sugar occurs universally throughout the plant kingdom in fruits, seeds, flowers, and roots of plants. Honey consists principally of sucrose and its hydrolysis products. Sugarcane and sugarbeets are the chief sources for the preparation of sucrose on a large scale. Another source of commercial interest is the sap of maple trees. See Oligosaccharide
(also saccharose), one of the most important disac-charides. Sucrose, which is present in all photosynthesizing plants, forms colorless crystals that dissolve readily in water and melt at 185°–186°C. It is easily hydrolyzed to yield glucose and fructose by the action of acids or the enzyme invertase.
Sucrose is one of the most easily digested and transportable forms of carbohydrates in plants. Carbohydrates formed in photosynthesis are transferred in the form of sucrose from the leaves to seeds, roots, tubers, and bulbs, where the sucrose is easily converted into starch or inulin.
Sucrose was produced even in ancient India, China, and Egypt by separating it from the sap of sugarcane. Currently the major source of sucrose in countries of the temperate zone is the sugar beet. Sucrose is used widely in the food and microbiological industries. The fermentation of sucrose by various microorganisms yields ethyl alcohol, and other alcohols, acetone, acetic acid, lactic acid, and other products are obtained as well. Sucrose is commonly called sugar.