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the lowest of the four ancient Indian varnas.

The Sudra varna, which became established during the formation of a class society in India, was made up of conquered tribes and of outsiders who were admitted into the community; the latter included persons who had become separated from their own tribes and persons whose tribes had broken up. In the ancient Indian slaveholding society, the Sudras were servants, artisans, and dependent and subordinate workers. In confirmation of their lowly status, they were forbidden to undergo the initiatory rite (”second birth”) that would entitle them to full civil rights; as a result, the Sudras, unlike the three higher varnas, were “once born.”

The Sudras were subject to many social restrictions: they were forbidden to own land, hold priestly or governmental office, or take part in politics or religious ceremonies. Their unequal status was reflected in various practices; for example, if convicted of a crime, Sudras were punished more severely than members of the higher varnas would be in similar circumstances, and money could be lent to them at unusually high rates of interest.

In the first centuries of the Common Era, the Sudras achieved higher status, and many restrictions disappeared; their social position came to resemble that of the Vaisyas. In various parts of India, castes were classified as Sudra regardless of their actual status, and the term lost a fixed meaning for India as a whole.


References in periodicals archive ?
Por ultimo, asi como brahmanes y ksatriyas se oponen a vaisyas y sudras, del mismo modo, la boca y los brazos se ubican, con el ombligo como punto medio, en el extremo opuesto del cuerpo con respecto a las piernas y los pies.
For the likely output of a Sudra agricultural worker we can draw on the estimates by Hayami and Ruttan (1985, p.
Sudra (also called jaba) designates the more than 90 per cent of the Balinese population who do not belong to one of the three castes (triwangsa).
It follows then that Dumont's values are those of the Brahmans and like the Brahmans he denies the existence of Sudra values not shared by Brahmans, ie of asymmetrical recognition.
Dharmapala, who was among the severest Buddhist critics of Brahmins--he mocks their rituals, accuses them of abusing women and sudras, and says they behave like "greedy lepers" (p.
Harriet Baka, Mothers' Union's development coordinator for the Province is included in the SUDRA Relief committee.
Mr Sudra staggered the short distance to his home in Erdington, Birmingham, but collapsed and died on the doorstep in his mother Varsha's arms.
The author is free to interpret castes as "types" rejecting the Brahmanic caste division into four categories Brahmana (priestly class), Ksatriya (warrior class), Vaisya (business and cultivators' community) and Sudra (community of servants in general).
25) Some Sudra and Dalit subcastes were hereditary producers of alcoholic drink.
Dipa Sudra, founder and owner of The Body Temple beauty business Emma Alliance, fashion designer and manufacturerHoney Kalaria, top modern Indian dance expert and founder of Diva Entertainments Shehzad Husain, one of the most experienced food consultants in the UK Shernaz Engineer, managing director of Verity Appointments Zaneb Khan, a skills facilitator and founder of the London Training Agency
The 12-1 chance finished third, beaten a length and two lengths, behind Weet-A-Minute and the favourite Sudra.
There are four main castes: Brahman (priests, officers of state); Kshatriya (rulers, warriors, landlords); Vaisiya (traders, artisans, cultivators); Sudra (menial workers).