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tall tropical perennials (species of Saccharum, chiefly S. officinarum) of the family Poaceae (grassgrass,
any plant of the family Poaceae (formerly Gramineae), an important and widely distributed group of vascular plants, having an extraordinary range of adaptation. Numbering approximately 600 genera and 9,000 species, the grasses form the climax vegetation (see ecology) in
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 family), probably cultivated in their native Asia from prehistoric times. Sugarcane somewhat resembles corn and sorghum, with a large terminal panicle and a noded stalk. In biblical times, one of the known sweetening agents in the world was honey. It was not until the Middle Ages that the "Indian honey-bearing reed" was introduced to the Middle East and became accessible to Europe, where sugar was sold from druggists' shelves as a costly medicinal or luxury. Later, sugarcane plants were introduced by Spanish and Portuguese explorers of the 15th and 16th cent. throughout the Old and New World tropics, and the large cane industry rapidly took shape. Today, sugarcane and the sugar beet (see beetbeet,
biennial or annual root vegetable of the family Chenopodiaceae (goosefoot family). The beet (Beta vulgaris) has been cultivated since pre-Christian times. Among its numerous varieties are the red, or garden, beet, the sugar beet, Swiss chard, and several types of
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), a temperate plant developed as a commercial sugar source c.1800, are the only two major economic sources of sugarsugar,
compound of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen belonging to a class of substances called carbohydrates. Sugars fall into three groups: the monosaccharides, disaccharides, and trisaccharides. The monosaccharides are the simple sugars; they include fructose and glucose.
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. Cuba and India together produce a large percentage of the world's tropical sugar, cane sugar. Cane is harvested by cutting down the plant stalks, which are then pressed several times to extract the juice. The juice is concentrated by evaporation into dark, sticky sugar, often sold locally. Refined sugar, less nourishing as food, is obtained by precipitating out the non-sugar components. Almost pure sucrosesucrose
, commonest of the sugars, a white, crystalline solid disaccharide (see carbohydrate) with a sweet taste, melting and decomposing at 186°C; to form caramel. It is known commonly as cane sugar, beet sugar, or maple sugar, depending upon its natural source.
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, it is the main commercial product. Byproducts obtained from sugarcane include molassesmolasses,
sugar byproduct, the brownish liquid residue left after heat crystallization of sucrose (commercial sugar) in the process of refining. Molasses contains chiefly the uncrystallizable sugars as well as some remnant sucrose.
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, rumrum,
spirituous liquor made from fermented sugarcane products. Prepared by fermentation, distillation, and aging, it is made from the molasses and foam that rise to the top of boiled sugarcane juice.
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, alcohol, fuel, livestock feed, and from the stalk residue, paper and wallboard. Sugarcane is classified in the division MagnoliophytaMagnoliophyta
, division of the plant kingdom consisting of those organisms commonly called the flowering plants, or angiosperms. The angiosperms have leaves, stems, and roots, and vascular, or conducting, tissue (xylem and phloem).
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, class Liliopsida, order Cyperales, family Poaceae (Gramineae).


See A. C. Barnes, The Sugar Cane (2d ed. 1973); B. Albert and A. Graves, ed., World Sugar Economy in War (1988).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.


Saccharum officinarum. A stout, perennial grass plant characterized by two-ranked leaves, and a many-jointed stalk with a terminal inflorescence in the form of a silky panicle; the source of more than 50% of the world's annual sugar production.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
The Supreme Court of Pakistan directed sugar mill owners to pay all outstanding dues to sugarcane growers by July 30.Court also mentioned that if the amount not paid, action would be taken as per Punjab Land Revenue Act.The total dues Ramzan Sugar have to clear Rs 580m, Al Arabiya mills owned by Shahbaz Sharif has to pay Rs 390m.A mill owned by PPP leader Zaka Ashraf has also not paid an amount of Rs 880m to farmers, Sugarcane growers had expressed concern over the government's failure to implement the SC's order regarding payment of the sugarcane price to the farmers.
While addressing, Dr Zafar said that sugarcane per acre production could be enhance by proper use of fertilizers and applying modern agriculture technology.
These unique fruit juices are a first of their kind globally where fruits are combined with sugarcane juice that acts as a natural sweetener thereby replacing the need for refined sugar and water as is done in other packaged fruit drinks and beverages.
The minister in a tweet said sugar cane farmers in Sindh andPunjabwere paid the full price of their yield in a timely manner after a long time, which directly benefited them as they now have resources for next crop.Separately, thePunjabgovernment had said it paid a sum of Rs113 billion to the sugarcane growers in the province while remaining dues will also be paid soon.
Sugarcane crop: Sindh govt orders mills to start crushing by month-end
Besides this, SSP Motorway Ghulam Sarwar Bhayo also held meetings with Deputy Commissioners and Owners of Mills and also passed special directions to brief the drivers of tractor trollies about traffic rules and defensive driving in this crashing season of sugarcane. Due to this, we quite succeeded in this year from road blockage and accidents/incidents.
He said that farmers should adopt latest technology to increase sugarcane produce by brining maximum land under its cultivation.
Since making sugarcane a dominant crop in the barangay, Bannawag Norte has been known for producing local native wine called basi and sugarcane vinegar.
He informed that the area under sugarcane cultivation had recorded a steep decline of 27 percent in Punjab this year whereas in Faisalabad it recorded 15 percent decline.
He didn't sell his sugarcane crop to the sugar factory, for it was offering an inadequate price of Rs120/40kg against the notified price of Rs182/40kg for the 2018-19 season.
Altaf Shakoor said many sugarcane growers in Sindh are burning their crop because the crushing season goes delayed and they do not get proper rates for their produce.