sulfa drug


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sulfa drug,

any of a class of synthetic chemical substances derived from sulfanilamide, or para-aminobenzenesulfonamide. Sulfa drugs are used to treat bacterial infections, although they have largely been replaced for this purpose by antibioticsantibiotic,
any of a variety of substances, usually obtained from microorganisms, that inhibit the growth of or destroy certain other microorganisms. Types of Antibiotics
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; some are also used in the treatment of diabetes. Because sulfa drugs were first used to elucidate ways in which substances can interfere with the metabolism of invading microorganisms, they are of historical interest. The parent compound, para-aminobenzenesulfonamide, was synthesized in 1908 by Paul Gelmo, an Austrian industrial chemist. In 1932 the German chemist Gerhard DomagkDomagk, Gerhard
, 1895–1964, German chemist and pathologist. A teacher successively at the universities of Greifswald and Münster, he became (1927) director of research at the I. G. Farbenindustrie laboratory at Wuppertal.
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 discovered that the dye Prontosil had antagonistic properties against a wide range of bacteria, and in 1935 it was found that the sulfanilamide portion of the Prontosil molecule was responsible for its antibacterial effect. In 1940 it was shown that sulfanilamide inhibited the action of the physiological substance para-aminobenzoic acid, which bacteria need to synthesize folic acid. The idea that the two substances were antagonists led to a theory of the mechanism of action of drugs: Many chemotherapeutic substances compete with structurally similar substances that are necessary to the metabolism of invading microorganisms. Since sulfanilamide first came into use, more than 150 different derivatives have appeared on the market, chemically modified to achieve more effective antibacterial activity, wider spectrum of microorganisms affected, or more prolonged action. Because of their low cost they are still used in many parts of the world. However, resistance to sulfa drugs has emerged among many microorganisms, especially streptococci, meningococci, and shigella, making them less effective than formerly (see drug resistancedrug resistance,
condition in which infecting bacteria can resist the destructive effects of drugs such as antibiotics and sulfa drugs. Drug resistance has become a serious public health problem, since many disease-causing bacteria are no longer susceptible to previously
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). The substances are still used to treat some urinary tract infections, leprosy, and in combination with other drugs, fungal diseases such as toxoplasmosis.

sulfa drug

[′səl·fə ‚drəg]
(pharmacology)
Any of a family of drugs of the sulfonamide type with marked bacteriostatic properties.
References in periodicals archive ?
How long will it be before the organism also develops resistance to sulfa drugs? Hopefully, very, very long.
Several investigators have reported an association between failure of prophylaxis when using sulfa drugs and substitutions of 2 aa within the putative sulfa binding site of DHPS at positions 55 (Thr to Ala, mutation Ml) and 57 (Pro to Ser, M2) (1-4).
automatically contraindicated in patients with a history of allergy to sulfa drugs, Dr.
Celecoxib is technically a sulfonamide, but it should not be automatically contraindicated in patients with a history of allergy to sulfa drugs, Dr.
Surendra Kumar Das, a 2014 batch IPS officer, swallowed an overdose of sulfa drugs on September 6 and died three days later.
Sobocinski notes, "Beginning in 1944, penicillin therapy replaced sulfa drugs [see below] as the go-to treatment of venereal diseases (especially gonorrhea) at naval hospitals."
Cutaneous Loxoscelism: Patient with multiple bites and contraindication to sulfa drugs. Case report
Methemoglobinemia is an uncommon condition caused by induction of several toxic compounds including chlorates, inorganic, and organic nitrates or with drugs such as local anesthetics and sulfa drugs including dapsone or it can be congenital due to of red cell nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reductase deficiency.
Within 2 years, sulfanilamide and several derivative sulfa drugs were on the market.
The Mayo Clinic lists the following as commonly prescribed antibiotics to treat staph infection: certain cephalosporins, nafcillin or related antibiotics, sulfa drugs or vancomycin.
Before the invention of antibiotics, sulfa drugs and advances in surgery, healers relied on herbal cures or esoteric recipes that called on the use of metals or precious stones.