The tested antimicrobials were enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tylosin, erythromycin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine and sulfaquinoxaline (Fig.
Chemicals: Ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, sulfamethazine, sulfaquinoxaline, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, erythromycin and tylosin were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich, (95%; European Pharmacopoeia HPLC assay, product of China; Shanghai, Trading Co., Ltd.).
MRM transitions of the antibiotics were as following: chlortetracycline, m/z 479.4 a 444.1 and m/z 479.4 a 462.1; ciprofloxacin, m/z 332.5 a 314.5 and m/z 332.5 a 231.4; enrofloxacin, m/z 360.0 a 432.0 and m/z 360.0 a 286.0; sulfamethazine, m/z 279.1 a 92.0 and m/z 279.1 a 124.0; sulfaquinoxaline, m/z 301.0 a 156.0 and m/z 301.0 a 108.0; tetracycline m/z 445.4 a 154.0 and m/z 445.4 a 410.2; oxytetracycline m/z 461.2 a 426.2 and m/z 461.2 a 443.1; erythromycin m/z 735.1 a 158.2 and m/z 735.1 a 576.2; tylosin, m/z 916.5 a 174.0 and m/z 916.5 a 100.9, were the qualifier and quantifier ions, respectively (Han et al., 2015).
Furusawa, "Rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic determining technique of sulfamonomethoxine, sulfadimethoxine, and sulfaquinoxaline
in eggs without use of organic solvents," Analytica Chimica Acta, vol.
Sulfa drugs, such as sulfaquinoxaline
and sulfadimethoxine (Albon), and amprolium (Corid), available over-the-counter, are used to treat coccidiosis.
However, for monitoring purposes (and taking actions), the Brazilian National Plan for Control of Residues and Contaminants (PNCRC/Fish) establishes a reference limit of 100 [micro]g*[kg.sup.-1] for the residue of the individual sulfonamides (sulfachlorpyridazine, sulfadoxine, sulfamerazine, sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfathiazole, sulfamethazine, sulfaquinoxaline
, and sulfadimethoxine) or the sum of them.
Daphnia magna showed higher sensibility to ethanol (EC50(I)) than to the chemicals: sulfaquinoxaline
(193.3 mg [L.sup.-1]); sulfamethazine (201.1 mg [L.sup.-1]); sulfamerazine (194.6 mg [L.sup.-1]) and sulfadimethoxine (275 mg [L.sup.-1]), while a lesser sensibility was observed in comparison to ciprofloxacin (87.14 mg [L.sup.-1]) (Bona et al., 2014).
For the sulfonamides family, the standards of sulfachloropyridazine, sulfadiazine, sulfadimethoxine, sulfadoxine, sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfamethoxypyridazine, sulfaquinoxaline
, sulfathiazole, and sulfisoxazole were obtained from Sigma Chemical Co., whereas the standards of sulfadiazine and sulfathiazole were obtained from Dr.
You can treat the disease by feeding pellets containing 0.1 percent sulfaquinoxaline
continuously for two weeks.
Analyte Retention Time (minute) Corn oil 10.9 Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate 12.9 Methoxychlor 14.5 Sulfamerazine 15.0 Chloramphenicol 15.1 Sulfaquinoxaline
15.2 * NorBoxacin 15.2 Sulfamethazine 15.5 Sulfadiazine 15.8 Perylene 18.5 Sulfur 22.5 * OI Analytical P.O.