Celite or tricalcium aluminate reacts with sulfates and causes undesirable sulfate attack
The damage of concrete under sulfate attack
proceeds from the surface of concrete, the degradation depth is most suitable to represent the degradation degree of the corroded structure.
While in the case of the magnesium sulfate attack
, it attacks the calcium silicate hydrated (C-S-H) causing a loss of cohesion of the paste with the formation of gypsum, magnesium hydroxide, and silica gel as well .
The expansive sulfate attack
reaction puts stresses on the concrete and can lead to cracking, a loss of the bond between the cement paste and the aggregate and this results in a significant loss of strength.
Jiang, "Evolution of surface hardness of concrete under sulfate attack
," Construction and Building Materials, vol.
'Materials science of concrete: sulfate attack
Therefore, this was the main experimental argument to evaluate the performance and durability of geopolymers in other compressive strength tests (resistance to acids and sulfate attack
, and resistance to high temperatures).
becomes the main subject for the degradation of RC structures in marine environments involving chlorine ions .
and role of silica fume in resisting strength loss, Cement and Concrete Composites 27(1): 65-76.
In the recent years, Geopolymer binders have emerged as a possible alternative to OPC binders due to their reported high early strength and resistance against acid and sulfate attack
apart from its environmental friendliness .
Influence of silica fume replacement of cement on physical properties and resistance to sulfate attack
, Freezing and Thawing, and Alkali-Silica Reactivity, ACI Materials Journal (Technical Paper).
External sulfate attack
of concrete is a major problem that can appear in regions where concrete is exposed to soil or water containing sulfates, leading to softening and cracking of the concrete.