If the overall improvement of portland cement were to happen, six specific attributes must be considered: speed, strength, shrinkage, sustainability, silica reaction, and sulfate resistance
. A material or system that embodies all six of the characteristics would be considered a six sigma concrete.
Sun, "Effect of fly ash on frost resistance and sulfate resistance
of concrete," Journal of Northwest A and F University, vol.
It is clear that the relative strength ratio curve of modified concrete always exceeds 1.00, which indicates that the addition of admixture improves the ability of sulfate resistance
The slag provides sulfate resistance
, which added winter durability and strength against hurricanes to the home.
'Effects of LOI of ground bagasse ash on the compressive strength and sulfate resistance
of mortar' Construction Building Materials, 23(12): 3523-3531.
Then both the specimens were subjected to various types of investigations such us compression test, fluorescence microscopy, elevated temperature study, acid and sulfate resistance
test, and ultrasonic pulse velocity test.
of blended cements containing fly ash and rice husk ash.
Effects of limestone replacement ratio on the sulfate resistance
of Portland limestone cement mortars exposed to extraordinary high sulfate concentrations // Constr.
2009), indicating that the fineness influences the sulfate resistance
of concrete--the finer the POFA, the lower is the expansion of concrete due to sulfate attack.
ASTM C 150 limits tricalcium aluminate (2) ([C.sub.3]A) levels for Type II and V portland cements of 8 % and 5 %, respectively, in order to control sulfate resistance
. The performance-based ASTM C 1157 utilizes a physical test (ASTM C 1012) for sulfate resistance
by evaluating expansion of mortar prisms made with the cement and requiring them to have expansion below a certain limit without specifying the cement composition limits.
Cementitous coatings are used for structural reinforcement and limited sulfate resistance
. Depending on conditions, cementitous coatings can be used alone or an epoxy coating may be applied as a corrosion-resistant topcoat over the cementitous material.
"This product is ideal for impact resistant applications, heavy machinery and equipment, high operating temperature conditions, sulfate resistance
and high load anchors and dowels," says Five Star Market Manager Crysta Abell.--Five Star Products, Shelton, Conn., 203/336-7900; www.FiveStarProducts.com