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summative (or objective-oriented) evaluation a retrospective review of how well an project or organization has performed (either after the programme has been completed or at set time intervals), enabling summary statements and judgements to be made. This approach often utilizes criteria against which achievements can be compared, e.g. an organization's performance can be measured against its aims and objectives, by measuring inputs and outputs, by using PERFORMANCE INDICATORS, comparing a similar organization or contrasting benefits accrued to beneficiaries with a control group. Summative or objective-oriented evaluation can be subdivided into ‘process evaluation’, which examines the use of inputs (such as time and money); and ‘outcome evaluation’, which considers the effectiveness of the outcome. See EVALUATION and FORMATIVE EVALUATION.