"This secondary ice production process differs from the primary ice nucleation - the process where supercooled water
drops freeze when they interact with a small aerosol particle called an 'ice nucleating particle' (INP)," said Lawson.
They form in clouds of supercooled water
droplets, water below 0C but not yet frozen.
Temperatures higher up, even in summer, can get well below 0C and so ice crystals form along with something called "supercooled water
" which then grows into pellets of ice.
Can these X-ray spectroscopic conclusions on water at ambient conditions now also resolve the heavily debated question of the existence of a second critical point in the so-called "no mans land" of supercooled water
? This postulated second critical point is conceptually based on the extension of the established low- and high-density amorphous ice phases into purported low- and high-density liquid phases along a Widom line where the second critical point is found as the extrapolated divergence of stable and supercooled waters
thermodynamic response functions around -45C at atmospheric pressure.
As we have seen, there was great potential for icing, but the flight was not yet in the cloud where the majority of supercooled water
would be found, precipitation near the ground was mostly in solid form, and at this stage of the flight there wouldn't have been much time for ice to accumulate.
Both ASCII and WWMPP focused on ground-based seeding, in which Agi was released at ground level using generators that burn an Agi solution and rely on turbulence and orographic flows close to the ground to disperse the seeding material into clouds with supercooled water
. Because of this, the pattern of Agi dispersion is complicated and often remains close to the ground, making it hard to distinguish seeded from natural precipitation patterns.
"They become supercooled water
droplets remaining liquid even though they are below freezing temperature."
According to the experts at the Met Office, it is liquid that falls as 'a supercooled water
droplet until it strikes a cold surface, at which point it freezes almost instantly'.
Then, as in the much-studied case of supercooled water
, the fluctuations associated with the response function extrema should give rise to extremely rapid crystallization kinetics.
It generally does not include approval for flight in icing conditions resulting from supercooled water
droplets (common in cumulus clouds) or in freezing drizzle/freezing rain.
Secondary belief solidified into primary belief the way supercooled water
crystallizes into ice at the first tap.
As atmospheric water vapor and supercooled water
droplets in the seeded clouds are consumed in the process of ice nucleation, the generation (growth) of cloud ice (snow particles) increases, which causes the precipitation (snowfall) to increase.