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A common mistake, pointed out by Raz, is to think that the permissibility of not performing a supererogatory action constitutes an excuse rather than a justification for its nonperformance.
supererogatory? (D3) seems to be compatible with each of these possibilities.
The exemplary supererogatory act is one in which someone refuses to secure a good or exercise a right in the belief that this refusal will inspire others to care less about having the good or exercising the right in question.
We might, for example, suppose a view of forgiveness as supererogatory, with ethical significance of some sort, yet standing outside the range of moral obligation or fault.
Then it would be supererogatory for such physicians to treat HIV patients.
9- In Ramadan, different voluntary prayers are performed such as Taraaweeh (night prayer that takes place after the prayer of 'Ishaa'), Qiyaam (standing in supererogatory prayer at night), and other supererogatory prayers.
The first of the previously unpublished essays raises questions about the stringency of altruistic duties and the place of supererogatory acts in Kantian ethics, and the second inquires into the kinds of value judgments that are implicit in persons' choices of ends.
Subsequent essays extend inquiry into areas of central concern to both the history of theological ethics and the contemporary debate, including the nature of and limits to self-sacrifice, the relation between the universal scope of neighbor-love and the focused loyalties of "special relations," the validity and meaning of proper self-love, love as duty and as supererogatory, and the relation of love and justice.
Some may object that the son of proportionality we recommend will require supererogatory acts of individuals, forgoing care they believe they are entitled to in order to benefit others.
The book ends with a discussion of supererogatory acts, characteristic of saints and heroes whose actions rise sharply above prevailing standards.
Harrison calls this a "supererogatory morality," acts that are expected to go beyond the accepted standards of obligation.
Using five different child-sacrifice cases, the author argues that the relationship between the ethics of care and the ethics of justice is not that one is wholly right while the other is morally wrong or irrelevant, or that one somehow has priority over the other, or that one is supererogatory while the other is required, or that one is a role ethic while the other is a real ethic, or that they are equivalent.