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of the greater proximity of the superior planets to the earth when they
Likewise, Spearman's Principle favours Copernicus's theory even though in order for Copernicus's theory to account for the constraint governing the oppositions of Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn, it must set the parameter specifying the number of superior planets to a particular value (namely, three).
In general, superior planets (and their moons) appear most luminous when angular size and phase both peak in close succession--that is, proximate with GIE, which for all practical purposes is synonymous with opposition.
The superior planets, those beyond the Earth's orbit, are best seen at opposition, when the planet is closest to Earth and directly opposite the Sun; it then rises at sunset and culminates at midnight.

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