(1995), reported that in an animal model of varicocele, superoxide ion
was found to be three times higher in experimental varicocele group than control group in animal tissue, which is accordance with our finding that there was an increase in the concentration of superoxide ions
as a result of reduction in the activities of superoxide dismutase caused by induced varicocele.
This oxidative damage is found to be handled primarily by reactive oxygen species such as hydroxyl radical, superoxide ion
, and hydrogen peroxide (4).
The resulted superoxide ion
(anion radical, [O.sub.2.sup.-*]) is produced by the radical decomposition of [H.sub.2][O.sub.2] [47,48,51].
is toxic to cells; a defense mechanism must have been initiated by nature.
Oxygen that is omnipresent on the surface of the particles acts as an electron acceptor by forming the superoxide ion
Free radical starters are compounds that induce the formation of the superoxide ion
[O.sup.*-.sub.2] from an ozone molecule.
The interaction of rutin with superoxide ion
and ferrous ions and the reaction of quercetin with lipid peroxy radicals were also studied.
was generated in vitro as described by Paoletti et al.
These include peroxyl radical ([ROO.sup.-]), hydroxyl radical ([HO.sup.-]), hydrogen peroxide ([H.sub.2][O.sub.2]), superoxide ion
([O.sub.2.sup.-]), singlet oxygen ([10.sup.2]) and peroxynitrite ([OONO.sup.-]).
According to Daniel Blake, principal scientist at the Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado, when Ti[O.sub.2] is exposed to UV light of a wavelength below 385 nanometers in the presence of water vapor, two highly reactive substances are formed: hydroxyl radicals [OH] and a superoxide ion
[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].
About 4% of the total oxygen that is consumed by animal mitochondria during aerobic respiration undergoes a further univalent reduction to form superoxide ion
(Boveris and Cardenas, 1982), and exposure to elevated temperature increases superoxide ion
production in animal mitochondria (Burdon et al., 1990).