(redirected from supervisions)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



in the USSR, an activity carried out by governmental agencies to ensure that socialist legality is observed.

Procuratorial. Procuratorial supervision consists in the procurator’s office overseeing the precise execution of the law by all ministries, subordinate agencies, individual officials, and citizens of the USSR, in accordance with Article 113 of the Constitution of the USSR. All organs within the procuratorial system are obligated to take timely steps to halt any violations of the law, no matter where they may originate. The procurator-general of the USSR and the procuratorial system as a whole exercise powers of general supervision as they oversee the precise execution of the law by institutions, organizations, officials, and citizens.

The specific tasks of procuratorial supervision include bringing criminal offenders to accountability, ensuring the observation of legality in the work of all criminal investigative and preliminary court investigative agencies, ensuring the observation of legality in all court hearings of criminal and civil cases, ensuring the lawful execution of sentences, and ensuring the observation of legality in all detention facilities.

An important part of general procuratorial supervision consists in ensuring the full lawfulness of documents issued by ministries and departments and the institutions and enterprises subordinate to them, by the executive agencies of local soviets of working people’s deputies, and by cooperative and other public organizations. Where orders, instructions, decisions, directives, decrees, or other such documents conflict with the law, the procurator delivers a formal protest to the agency that issued the document or to its superior agency.

In order to perform their supervisory function, procurators have at their disposal such powers as the right to hear and decide complaints and petitions by citizens and to monitor compliance with the law at the actual site of an institution or enterprise. They may demand that necessary documents and information be submitted and that the appropriate officials and citizens explain violations of law that have occurred. The procurator may submit reports to state agencies and public organizations concerning the elimination of violations and the circumstances that fostered them. As for officials or citizens who have violated the law, the procurator assesses the nature of the violation and either brings the offender to criminal accountability or takes steps to bring the violator to administrative, disciplinary, or fiscal accountability. Where necessary the procurator seeks compensation for material damages caused through violation of the law.

Judicial. Judicial supervision refers to procedures carried out by courts to verify the legality and validity of sentences, decisions, orders, and decrees and to give judicial organs guidelines for applying legislation to cases being heard and for resolving disputes among courts. Judicial supervision is exercised when the following cases are heard: petitions for review or appeal of sentences, decisions, and orders that have not entered into force; appeals submitted within the regular supervision system by authorized officials of the procurator’s office and the court regarding sentences, orders, and decrees that have already entered into force (judicial supervision in the narrow sense of the term); and submission of the findings of procurators regarding newly discovered circumstances of any given case.

Another type of judicial supervision is carried out when the court decides certain disputes that arise in the course of state administration, such as those pertaining to incorrect inclusion in or incorrect exclusion from election lists, to fines improperly imposed on citizens for administrative offenses, or to actions brought to delete or alter entries in documents of civil status.

Administrative. Administrative supervision is an activity carried out by state administrative agencies to ensure that organizations, officials, and citizens observe rules established under governmental authority and to halt, prevent, and eliminate violations of legality in particular areas of administration. It is exercised by administrative agencies with regularly defined jurisdictions, such as ministries and state committees, and by specially created agencies such as the various state inspectorates.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


The observation and inspection of construction work in order to ensure conformity with the contract documents; direction of the work, 1 by contractor’s personnel. Supervision is neither a duty nor a responsibility of the architect as part of his basic professional services.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Supervisor's daring to be himself and share everything that emerges 'here and now' in the supervision process: his experience, feelings, thoughts (V3, M10): 'I felt the supervision as E-P because attention was paid to my relationship with the supervisor, to what was happening at that moment between us in the supervision' (M10).
Equivalent, dialogue-based relationship (V1, V3, M2, M8, M11, M12): 'Feeling of phenomenological supervision was created also by the fact that the supervisor wasn't interpreting, there weren't any rules from his side as to how it "had to be", what the correct way was' (M8).
Process of exploration is not directed at searching for answers or solutions but to the birthing of valuable questions which continue exploration after the supervision ends (M5, M8, M10).
Emotional change (V1, M6, M8, M11, M4): 'After the supervision there remained a feeling, not a mental answer, but a feeling and experience that helped me to find contact points with my client' (M6).
Berger & Graft, 1995; Bernard, 1994) are critical components of effective supervision because the more comfortable MHC students feel about approaching supervisors for help, the more likely they are to seek this help and get their needs met (N.
Students might also want to ask former supervisees about theft best and worst experiences in supervision and how conflicts were managed.
At the very least, they should have thought out the complementary answers to questions they will pose to supervisors For instance, the student should provide documentation of education and experience, perhaps in a resume or an academic transcript and be prepared to discuss theoretical orientations, client populations, strengths and weaknesses, goals for professional growth and skill development, any specialized interests, and hopes for supervision. Moreover, students need to mindful of the degree to which they communicate those previously listed desirable qualities of supervisees: enthusiasm, initiative, openness, psychological-mindedness, and minimal defensiveness, to name a few.
Other practical matters and procedures need to be addressed from the outset of supervision. Unless provided to on-site supervisors directly from the faculty, MHC students are responsible for conveying university requirements (e.g., client-contact hours and taping) and providing corresponding paperwork (e.g., formal contracts, consent forms, evaluations, and counseling records).
Since clinical supervision in such an essential part of the training of all clinical practitioners, it is imperative for clinical supervisors to be trained to be effective or competent and ethical supervisors (Barnett, 2007).Competencies or key skills for effective and ethical clinical supervision have been described in the literature (e.g., see Falender et al., 2004,2007).
Christian clinical supervision or Christian integration in clinical supervision (Aten et al., 2007) of Christian counselors has common but also unique or distinct features when compared to clinical supervision in general.
In many ways, supervision for Christian counselors is identical to supervision in other settings.
Christian clinical supervision therefore focuses not only on developing the clinical skills or competency of the supervisee or counselor, but it also facilitates his or her spiritual growth or spiritual formation (Wicker & Moore, 2005), and develops his or her integration skills.

Full browser ?